I have been experiencing a lot of difficulty swallowing and underwent an endoscopy that was normal. What can this be?
While it was correct to undergo an upper endoscopy to look for structural lesions to explain difficulty swallowing such as cancers and strictures, the workup should not stop there. You may have a motility disorder of the esophagus, where abnormal contractions of the esophagus can effect swallowing. This can be evaluated at first with a barium swallow/esophagram, and then if an explanation is not found, with esophageal manometry. The swallow is simple and involves swallowing barium. The manometry is more cumbersome, as while awake, a thin catheter is placed through the nose as at it enters the esophagus, pressures are measures. Elevated pressures in the esophagus or lack of esophageal contractions can lead to difficulty swallowing. If those tests are normal, perhaps the problem is aspiration. That can be caused by a defect in the swallowing mechanism, as a result of a ...
Definition Breathing difficulty involves a sensation of difficult or uncomfortable breathing or a feeling of not getting enough air. See also: Difficulty breathing - first aid Alternative Names Shortness of breath; Breathlessness; Difficulty breathing; Dyspnea Considerations No standard definition exists for difficulty breathing. Some people may feel breathless with only mild exercise (for example, climbing stairs), even though they do not have a medical condition. Others may have advanced lung disease but never feel short of breath. Wheezing is one form of breathing difficulty in which you make a high-pitched sound when you breathe out. See also: Apnea Breathing difficulties - first aid Breathing difficulties - lying down Lung diseases Rapid breathing Common Causes Shortness of breath has many different causes: A blockage of the air passages in your nose, mouth, or throat may lead to difficulty breathing. Heart disease can cause breathlessness if your heart is unable to pump enough blood to supply ox...
Breathing difficulties can be described in several different ways. You may be short of breath, unable to take a deep breath, gasping for air, or feel like you are not getting enough air.
See also: Choking
Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid
If you are having difficulty breathing, it is almost always a medical emergency (other than feeling slightly winded from normal activity like exercise or climbing a hill).
Difficulty breathing has many potential causes. Some of the most common are:
, which can happen if you have emphysema or asthma, but may also happen spontaneously in young, healthy people
, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or heart failure
High altitudes, which can be a problem even in young people
Injury to the ne...
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