A recent study in the Annals of Surgery has shown that it may be bile not stomach acid that contributes to the formation of esophageal cancer. In the study it was shown that bile caused specific changes to the lining of the esophagus that could potentially turn off normal esophageal cell growth and turn on the intestinal cell growth that is the hallmark of Barrett's esophagus. Researchers further theorize that the bile activates stem cells in the esophagus to act like intestinal cells, where bile is normally found.
If these theories prove correct it would mean changes in how we currently prevent Barrett's esophagus or esophageal cancers. The current thinking relies on treating with proton pump inhibitors (PPI‘s) to reduce the acid made in the stomach. However, if bile is the trigger for the cancerous changes not acid, PPI's may not prevent it. In these instances the best way to treat the issue would be surgical correction of the LES or "anti-reflux surgery".
Definition Esophageal cancer is a cancerous (malignant) tumor of the esophagus, the muscular tube that moves food from the mouth to the stomach. See also: Barrett's esophagus Alternative Names Cancer - esophagus Causes, incidence, and risk factors Esophageal cancer is not very common in the United States. It occurs most often in men over 50 years old. Two main types of esophageal cancer exist: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. These two types look different from each other under the microscope. Squamous cell esophageal cancer is linked to smoking and alcohol consumption . Barrett's esophagus , a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), increases the risk for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. This is the more common type of esophageal cancer. Other risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus include: Male gender Obesity Smoking
Hairy leukoplakia; Smoker's keratosis
The goal of treatment is to get rid of the lesion. Removing the source of irritation is important and may cause the lesion to disappear.
Treat dental causes such as rough teeth, irregular denture surface, or fillings as soon as possible.
Stop smoking or using other tobacco products.
Do not drink alcohol.
You may need surgery to remove the lesion. The lesion is usually removed in your health care provider's office using local anesthesia.
Leukoplakia on the vulva is treated in the same way as oral lesions.
Leukoplakia is usually harmless. Lesions often clear up in a few weeks or months after the source of irritation is removed.
Oral hairy leukoplakia is often a sign of HIV infection and an increased likelihood of developing AIDS , but it is not harmful by itself.
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