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Definition An anal fissure is a small split or tear in the thin moist tissue ( mucosa ) lining the lower rectum (anus). Causes, incidence, and risk factors Anal fissures are extremely common in young infants but may occur at any age. Studies suggest 80% of infants will have had an anal fissure by the end of the first year. The rate of anal fissures decreases rapidly with age. Fissures are much less common among school-aged children than infants. In adults, fissures may be caused by constipation , the passing of large, hard stools, or by prolonged diarrhea. In older adults, anal fissures may be caused by decreased blood flow to the area. Anal fissures are also common in women after childbirth and persons with Crohn's disease .
Alternative Names Cancer - esophagus Prevention The following may help reduce your risk of squamous cell cancer of the esophagus: Avoid smoking Limit or do not drink alcoholic beverages People with symptoms of severe gastroesophageal reflux should seek medical attention. Screening with EGD and biopsy in people with Barrett's esophagus may lead to early detection and improved survival. People who are diagnosed with Barrett's esophagus should consider getting regular checkups for esophageal cancer. References Das A. Tumors of the esophagus. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2010:chap 46. National Cancer Institute. Esophageal Cancer Treatment PDQ. Updated July 20, 2010. National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology . Esophageal Cancer. V2. 2010. Accessed January 22, 2011.
Hairy leukoplakia; Smoker's keratosis
The goal of treatment is to get rid of the lesion. Removing the source of irritation is important and may cause the lesion to disappear.
Treat dental causes such as rough teeth, irregular denture surface, or fillings as soon as possible.
Stop smoking or using other tobacco products.
Do not drink alcohol.
You may need surgery to remove the lesion. The lesion is usually removed in your health care provider's office using local anesthesia.
Leukoplakia on the vulva is treated in the same way as oral lesions.
Leukoplakia is usually harmless. Lesions often clear up in a few weeks or months after the source of irritation is removed.
Oral hairy leukoplakia is often a sign of HIV infection and an increased likelihood of developing AIDS , but it is not harmful by itself.
You should know
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