Definition Esophageal cancer is a cancerous (malignant) tumor of the esophagus, the muscular tube that moves food from the mouth to the stomach. See also: Barrett's esophagus Alternative Names Cancer - esophagus Causes, incidence, and risk factors Esophageal cancer is not very common in the United States. It occurs most often in men over 50 years old. Two main types of esophageal cancer exist: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. These two types look different from each other under the microscope. Squamous cell esophageal cancer is linked to smoking and alcohol consumption . Barrett's esophagus , a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), increases the risk for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. This is the more common type of esophageal cancer. Other risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus include: Male gender Obesity Smoking
Introduction Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which acids from the stomach flow back up into the esophagus (an action called reflux ). Reflux occurs if the muscular actions of the lower esophagus or other protective mechanisms fail.
Click the icon to see an animation about heartburn. The hallmark symptoms of GERD are: Heartburn : a burning sensation in the chest and throat. Regurgitation : a sensation of acid backed up in the esophagus. Although acid is a primary factor in damage caused by GERD, other products of the digestive tract, including pepsin and bile, can also be harmful. Heartburn is a condition in which the acidic stomach contents back up into the esophagus, causing pain in the chest area. This reflux usually occurs because the sphincter muscle between the esophagus and stomach is weakened. Remaining upright by standing or sitting up after eating a meal can help reduce the reflux that causes heartburn. Continuous irritation of the esophagus lining, as in sev...
Definition An anal fissure is a small split or tear in the thin moist tissue ( mucosa ) lining the lower rectum (anus). Causes, incidence, and risk factors Anal fissures are extremely common in young infants but may occur at any age. Studies suggest 80% of infants will have had an anal fissure by the end of the first year. The rate of anal fissures decreases rapidly with age. Fissures are much less common among school-aged children than infants. In adults, fissures may be caused by constipation , the passing of large, hard stools, or by prolonged diarrhea. In older adults, anal fissures may be caused by decreased blood flow to the area. Anal fissures are also common in women after childbirth and persons with Crohn's disease .
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