Alternative Names Candidiasis - oral; Oral thrush; Fungal infection - mouth; Candide - oral Prevention If you have frequent outbreaks of thrush, your doctor may recommend taking antifungal medication on a regular basis to avoid recurrent infections. If an infant with thrush is breastfeeding, talk to your doctor about ways to prevent future infections, such as an antifungal medication. Sterilize or discard any pacifiers. For bottle-fed babies with thrush, discard the nipples and buy new ones as the baby's mouth begins to clear. To prevent spread of HIV infection, follow safe sex practices and universal precautions when working with blood products. References Kauffman CA. Candidiasis. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Textbook of Medicine . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders; 2007:chap 359.
Definition Geographic tongue is a map-like appearance of your tongue due to irregular patches on its surface. Alternative Names Patches on the tongue; Tongue - patchy; Benign migratory glossitis; Glossitis - benign migratory Causes, incidence, and risk factors The specific cause of geographic tongue is unknown, although vitamin B deficiency may be involved. Other causes may include irritation from hot or spicy foods, or alcohol. The condition appears to be less common in smokers. The pattern on the surface of the tongue may change very rapidly. This pattern change occurs when there is a loss of the tiny, finger-like projections, called papillae, on the tongue's surface. This makes areas of the tongue flat. These areas are said to be "denuded." Denuded areas may persist for more than a month.
Definition A tongue biopsy is surgery to remove a piece of the tongue for examination under a microscope. Alternative Names Biopsy - tongue How the test is performed A tongue biopsy can be done using a needle. After numbing the area, the health care provider gently sticks the needle into the tongue and removes a tiny piece of tissue. Some types of tongue biopsies remove a thin slice of tissue. Others are done under general anesthesia (asleep and pain-free) so that larger areas may be removed and examined. See also: Surgical excision How to prepare for the test You may be told not to eat or drink anything for several hours before the test. How the test will feel A needle biopsy is often somewhat uncomfortable even with use of an anesthetic, because the tongue is quite sensitive. After the biopsy, the tongue can be tender or sore, and it may feel slightly swollen. There may be stitches or an open sore where the biopsy was done. Why the test is performed The test is done to determine the cause of abn...
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