Heartburn, also known as gastric reflux or indigestion, happens after you eat and food is in your stomach. In the stomach, food is broken down by acids. Usually these acids stay in your stomach because a valve blocks the acids from going up the esophagus. Sometimes this valve doesn't work properly because the muscle weakens. When this happens, gastric acids can travel up the esophagus and cause a burning sensation -- this is heartburn. When these acids travel up into the mouth and then down into the lungs, they can cause gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Symptoms of heartburn and GERD include:
irritating burning sensation in the chest or throat
middle back pain
bitter, acidic taste in the mouth
an increase in the burning sensation while lying down
Breast cancer treatments that can cause heartburn and GERD are:
Tykerb (chemical name: lapatinib), a targeted therapy
Bisphosphonates, medicines that are used to protect bones during breast cancer treat...
Risk Factors About 1 million Americans suffer from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and about half of these patients have ulcerative colitis. There are several risk factors for ulcerative colitis. Age Ulcerative colitis can occur at any age, but it is most often diagnosed in people ages 15 - 35 and, less commonly, in people ages 50 - 75. Gender Men and women are equally at risk for developing ulcerative colitis. Family History Ulcerative colitis tends to run in families, with up to 20% of patients having a close relative who also has the disease. Race and Ethnicity Ulcerative colitis is more common among whites than non-whites. Jewish people of Ashkenazi (Eastern European) descent have a heightened risk for ulcerative colitis. Smoking Smoking appears to decrease the risk of developing ulcerative colitis. (Because of the hazards of smoking, however, it should never be used to protect against ulcerative colitis.) Conversely, smoking appears to increases the risk of developing Crohn's disease, and...
This is a condition resulting from motility disorders of the esophagus ranging from absent peristalsis to hyperperistalsis and spasm. Diffuse esophageal spasm typically causes substernal chest pain in association with difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia) of both liquids and solids. The pain may be severe and may awaken the patient from sleep. Liquids that are very hot or cold may aggravate the pain. With time, this disorder may evolve into achalasia (failure to relax smooth muscle fibers of the gastrointestinal tract). There may be reflux of recently swallowed food. Combinations of all of these with abnormal lower or upper esophageal sphincter function complete the clinical picture. Esophageal spasm may also produce a severe pain in the absence of dysphagia that is indistinguishable from angina pectoris . This pain is often described as a substernal squeezing pain and may occur in association with exercise. A specific cause is seldom found, but there may be associated reflux esophagitis (i...
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