FROM OUR EXPERTS
Halitosis is a generic term used to describe unpleasant odor coming from the mouth, also known as bad breath. Bad breath is relatively common and affects about 50 – 60 percent of people (Campisi, 2011). The problem is bad breath (and a bad taste in the mouth) can be caused by a number of factors. For the majority of sufferers, the bad breath originates in the mouth. There is no single bacteria to blame for bad breath or a bad taste in your mouth, rather bad breath is likely caused by a complex interaction of several different bacteria.
Halitosis can also originate outside of the mouth. For example, bad breath is significantly associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (Moshkowitz, 2007) and is frequently a complaint of those suffering reflux symptoms . However, this association is somewhat complicated because there are some disorders that cause reflux symptoms that are less likely to also cause bad breath than others. Also there could be a combination of an oral and n...
When discussing of the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, we often talk about pain, stiffness, swelling, and disability. We don’t often talk about vocal quality or ability to breathe freely, but RA can affect the larynx and small joints of the head and neck, including temporomandibular joint (TMJ), the cricoarytenoid joint (CAJ), and the cricothyroid joint (CTJ).
According to a new literature review in the journal Autoimmune Diseases , the prevalence of laryngeal symptoms of RA has risen from up to 31% of RA patients in 1960 (Lawry, 1984) to 75% by the end of the 20th century (Hamdan, 2013). At least a portion of this significant increase is likely due to increased awareness and better clinical diagnosis.
Symptoms of larynx involvement caused by RA include odynophagia (painful swallowing), foreign body sensation, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), sore throat, lump sensation in the throat, change in voice quality (e.g. hoarseness, breathiness, vocal fatigue), referred ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved
NEXIUM® delayed release capsules in children ages 12 to 17 for
the short-term treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
NEXIUM was tested in adolescents ages 12 to 17 in a randomized,
double-blind parallel group study in which a total of 149 patients,
ages 12 to 17, with clinically diagnosed GERD were treated with
either NEXIUM 20mg or NEXIUM 40 mg once a day for up to eight
weeks. Reported side effects included headache, abdominal pain,
diarrhea and nausea.
Drug makers don't yet know if NEXIUM® is safe or effective
for treating GERD in children under 12 years old.
more about acid reflux.
You should know
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