What does one do if she experiences major chest pains and medical examinations reveal no heart or BP abnormalities? This is a particularly good question because it applies to all fields of medicine, and to all people who at some time in their lives will become patients (Yes, even doctors). If a person is experiencing symptoms that are not accompanied by signs of disease, or evidence in the form of an abnormal test, the diagnostic work-up will sometimes cease. Yet the patient still has the symptoms. What should be done? First, were all the elements of your complaint dealt with? Please see my prior posting about preparing for a visit to a cardiologist . It is appropriate for a visit to any physician. Second, what constitutes a full work-up for chest pain? This is actually different depending upon the likelihood of different processes causing the discomfort. Arteriosclerotic coronary artery disease is quite unlikely in very young people (but congenital disease may be more ...
As I sit here writing, I'm in a lot of pain. The left side of my low back is throbbing. Often I can ease this pain by popping the back, but this time that hasn't worked, and neither has Advil. The next step will be to put a prescription pain patch on it.
"Depression hurts," say the Cymbalta commercials. Yes, it does, and antidepressants that, like Cymbalta, work to make more of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine available have also been shown to relieve pain.
My questions arise from my own experience. Although I was formally diagnosed with bipolar relatively late, I see symptoms going clear back to childhood. I began to have chronic pain in my early 20s, first in my neck and head, then crippling pain in my arms that finally moved to my mid and upper back. This was diagnosed, after 9 difficult years, as fibromyalgia. Then later I injured my low back and have had trouble with it ever since, while other areas of my back flare up periodically.
One of t...
<p><strong>What Is GERD?</strong></p>
<p>Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the most common cause of heartburn (which actually has nothing to do with the heart), is the regurgitation of the contents of the stomach and duodenum (the first portion of the small intestine) into the esophagus, the muscular tube through which food travels from the mouth to the stomach. Because the esophagus lacks the protective lining of the stomach, it is easily irritated by digestive juices; the irritation causes a “burning” sensation in the chest.</p>
<p>The lower esophageal sphincter (LES), a circular band of muscle located at the junction of the esophagus and stomach, is usually clenched but opens when a person swallows to permit food or liquid to enter the stomach. Reflux occurs when, for a variety of possible reasons, the LES allows stomach contents to pass upward into the esophagus.</p>
<p>Usually reflux produces no sy...
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