Definition A contracture is a tightening of muscle, tendons, ligaments, or skin that prevents normal movement. See also: Becker's muscular dystrophy Cerebral palsy Duchenne muscular dystrophy Dupuytren's contracture Volkmann's contracture Alternative Names Deformity - contracture Considerations A contracture develops when the normally elastic (stretchy) connective tissues are replaced by inelastic (nonstretchy) fiber-like tissue. This makes it hard to stretch the area and prevents normal movement. Contractures occur primarily in the skin, underlying tissues, muscle, tendons, and joint areas. The most common causes are scarring and lack of use (due to immobilization or inactivity). Common Causes Inherited disorders (such as muscular dystrophy ) Injury (including burns) Nerve damage Reduced use (for example, from immobilization)
Alternative Names Wry neck; Loxia Prevention While there is no known prevention, early treatment may prevent a worsening of the condition. References Spiegel DA, Hosalkar HS, Dormans JP, Drommond DS. The neck. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap. 679. Persing J. Prevention and management of positional skull deformities in infants. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine, Section on Plastic Surgery and Section on Neurological Surgery. Pediatrics . 2003;112:199-202. Patel M, Shah K. Orthopedics. In: Rakel RE, ed. Textbook of Family Medicine . 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 42.
Definition Muscle function loss is when a muscle doesn't work or move normally. The medical term for complete loss of muscle function is paralysis. Alternative Names Paralysis; Paresis; Loss of movement; Motor dysfunction Considerations Loss of muscle function may be caused by: A disease of the muscle itself (myopathy) A disease of the nervous system: nerve damage (neuropathy), or spinal cord injury, or brain damage ( stroke or other brain injury) The loss of muscle function after these types of events can be severe, and often will not completely return. Paralysis can be temporary or permanent. It can affect a small area (localized) or be widespread (generalized). It may affect one side (unilateral) or both sides (bilateral). If the paralysis affects the lower half of the body and both legs it is called paraplegia. It if affects both arms and legs, it is called quadriplegia. If the paralysis affects the muscles that cause breathing, it is quickly life threatening. Common Causes Diseases of the mus...
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