Definition A contracture is a tightening of muscle, tendons, ligaments, or skin that prevents normal movement. See also: Becker's muscular dystrophy Cerebral palsy Duchenne muscular dystrophy Dupuytren's contracture Volkmann's contracture Alternative Names Deformity - contracture Considerations A contracture develops when the normally elastic (stretchy) connective tissues are replaced by inelastic (nonstretchy) fiber-like tissue. This makes it hard to stretch the area and prevents normal movement. Contractures occur primarily in the skin, underlying tissues, muscle, tendons, and joint areas. The most common causes are scarring and lack of use (due to immobilization or inactivity). Common Causes Inherited disorders (such as muscular dystrophy ) Injury (including burns) Nerve damage Reduced use (for example, from immobilization)
Alternative Names Wry neck; Loxia Prevention While there is no known prevention, early treatment may prevent a worsening of the condition. References Spiegel DA, Hosalkar HS, Dormans JP, Drommond DS. The neck. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap. 679. Persing J. Prevention and management of positional skull deformities in infants. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine, Section on Plastic Surgery and Section on Neurological Surgery. Pediatrics . 2003;112:199-202. Patel M, Shah K. Orthopedics. In: Rakel RE, ed. Textbook of Family Medicine . 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 42.
Definition Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine, which is an important part of muscle. This article discusses the laboratory test to measure the amount of creatinine in the blood. Creatinine can also be measured with a urine test. See: Creatinine - urine Alternative Names Serum creatinine How the test is performed Blood is drawn from a vein, usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The site is cleaned with germ-killing medicine (antiseptic). The health care provider wraps an elastic band around the upper arm to apply pressure to the area and make the vein swell with blood. Next, the health care provider gently inserts a needle into the vein. The blood collects into an airtight vial or tube attached to the needle. The elastic band is removed from your arm. Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed, and the puncture site is covered to stop any bleeding. In infants or young children, a sharp tool called a lancet may be used to puncture the skin and mak...
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