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Introduction Pneumonia is inflammation of the lung that is most often caused by infection with bacteria, viruses, or other organisms. Occasionally, inhaled chemicals that irritate the lungs can cause pneumonia. Healthy people can usually fight off pneumonia infections. However, people who are sick, including those who are recovering from the flu (influenza) or an upper respiratory illness, have a weakened immune system. This makes it easier for bacteria to grow in their lungs. It is one of the top 10 causes of death in the U.S. and the 6th leading cause of death in the elderly (65 and older). Defining Pneumonia by Location in the Lung Pneumonia may be defined according to its location in the lung: Lobar pneumonia occurs in one part, or lobe, of the lung. Bronchopneumonia tends to be scattered throughout the lung. Defining Pneumonia by Origin of Infection Doctors often classify pneumonia based on where the disease is contracted. This helps predict which organisms are most likely responsible f...
Anaerobic pneumonia; Aspiration of vomitus; Necrotizing pneumonia; Aspiration pneumonitis
Some people may need to be hospitalized. Treatment depends on the severity of the pneumonia . You may receive antibiotics, which treat bacteria. Some people may get special antibiotics to treat bacteria that live in the mouth.
The type of bacteria that caused the pneumonia depends on:
Where you live (at home or in a long-term nursing facility, for example)
Whether you've recently been hospitalized
Recent antibiotic use
You may need to have your swallowing function tested. Patients who have trouble swallowing may need to use other feeding methods to reduce the risk of aspiration.
The outcome depends on:
The severity of the pneumonia
The type of bacteria causing the pneumonia
How much of the lungs are involved
If acute respirator...
Risk Factors Risk factors for pneumonia often depend on the specific type of disease. Risk Factors for Institutional- and Hospital-Acquired (Nosocomial) Pneumonia Pneumonia that is contracted in the hospital is called hospital-acquired or nosocomial pneumonia. It affects an estimated 5 - 10 of every 1,000 hospitalized patients every year. More than half of these cases may be due to strains of bacteria that have developed resistance to antibiotics. In fact, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa are leading causes of death from hospital-acquired pneumonia. Those at highest risk: The elderly and very young. People with chronic or severe medical conditions, such as lung problems, heart disease, nervous system (neurologic) disorders, and cancer. People who have had surgery, particularly people over age 80. Among the surgical procedures that pose a particular risk are removal of the spleen (splenectomy), abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, or ope...
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