Surgery forms a part of nearly every patient's treatment for breast cancer. The initial surgical intervention is often a lumpectomy, the removal of the tumor itself. In the past, mastectomy (the removal of the breast) was the standard treatment for nearly all breast cancers. Now, many patients with early-stage cancers can choose breast-conserving treatment, or lumpectomy followed by radiation, with or without chemotherapy.
For invasive breast cancer, studies indicate that lumpectomy or partial mastectomy combined with radiation therapy works as well as a modified radical mastectomy.
Breast-conserving procedures are considered as appropriate and as successful as mastectomy in most women with early stage breast cancer. All women should discuss these options fully with their doctor. Recurrence rates with conservative surgery are highest in women under age 45. Some women choose mastectomy over breast-conserving treatment even if the latter is appropriate because it gives them a greater sense of security and allows them to avoid radiation therapy.
Lumpectomy. Lumpectomy is the removal of the tumor, often along with lymph nodes in the armpit. It serves as an opportunity for biopsy, a diagnostic tool, and a primary treatment for small local breast tumors. If invasive cancer is found, the doctor will decide to proceed with breast radiation therapy, to remove additional tissue (should the margins of the specimen show signs of cancer), or to perform a mastectomy. Lumpectomy followed by radiation therapy is appropriate and as effective as mastectomy for most women with stage I or II breast cancers.
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Breast-Conserving Surgery (Quadrantectomy). Breast-conserving surgery (sometimes referred to as quadrantectomy) removes the cancer and a large area of breast tissue, occasionally including some of the lining over the chest muscles. It is less invasive than a full mastectomy, but the cosmetic results are less satisfactory than with a lumpectomy. Studies have found that breast-conserving surgeries plus postoperative radiotherapy offer the same survival rates as radical mastectomy in most women with early breast cancer.
Surgery to remove the breast (mastectomy) is important for women with operable breast cancer who are not candidates for breast conserving surgeries. There are different variations on the procedure:
Review Date: 11/08/2010
Reviewed By: Harvey Simon, MD, Editor-in-Chief, Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.