Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill cancer cells or to shrink the size of a tumor in the breast or surrounding tissue. It is used for several weeks following lumpectomy or partial mastectomy, and sometimes after full mastectomy. Radiation therapy can help reduce the chance of breast cancer recurrence in the breast and chest wall. Radiation is also important in advanced stages of cancer for relief of symptoms and to slow progression. Research shows that radiation therapy is helpful for women of all ages, including those over age 65.
Administration of Radiation Therapy
Radiation is generally administered in the following ways:
External Beam Radiation. This type of radiation is administered 4 - 6 weeks after surgery and delivered externally by an x-ray machine that targets radiation to the whole breast. It may be delivered to the chest wall in high-risk patients (large tumors, close surgical margins, or lymph node involvement). The treatment is generally given daily (except for weekends) for about 6 weeks. Some hospitals offer a shortened course of 3 weeks of radiation for patients with early-stage breast cancer.
Brachytherapy. Less commonly, radiation is delivered in implants (called brachytherapy). Implants are most often used as a radiation boost after whole breast radiation.
Side Effects of Radiation Therapy
Review Date: 11/08/2010
Reviewed By: Harvey Simon, MD, Editor-in-Chief, Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.