Definition Coronary artery spasm is a temporary, sudden narrowing of one of the coronary arteries (the arteries that supply blood to the heart). The spasm slows or stops blood flow through the artery and starves part of the heart of oxygen-rich blood. Alternative Names Variant angina; Angina - variant; Prinzmetal's angina Causes, incidence, and risk factors The spasm often occurs in coronary arteries that have not become hardened due to plaque buildup ( atherosclerosis ). However, it also can occur in arteries with plaque buildup. A contraction (squeezing) of muscles in the artery wall causes these spasms in the arteries. The contraction occurs in just one area of the artery. The coronary artery may appear normal during angiography , but it does not function normally. Coronary artery spasm affects approximately 4 out of 100,000 people. About 2% of patients with angina have coronary artery spasm. Coronary artery spasm occurs most commonly in people who smoke or who have high cholesterol or high ...
Highlights Coronary Artery Disease Coronary artery disease (CAD), also called heart disease, is a condition in which fatty deposits called plaque build-up in the hearts arteries. These deposits cause arteries to become narrow and blocked, which restricts blood and oxygen flow to the heart muscle. CAD is the leading cause of death, for both men and women, in the United States. Risk Factors Some of the main risk factors that increase the risk for CAD are: Smoking Unhealthy cholesterol and lipid levels High blood pressure Diabetes Lack of exercise Obesity Symptoms Angina is the primary symptom of coronary artery disease. Angina feels like gripping pain or pressure in the chest area. Stable angina is predictable chest pain that lasts a few minutes or less and is usually relieved by rest or medication. It is often triggered by physical exertion or emotional stress. Unstable angina is unpredictable chest pain that occurs unexpectedly, even when at rest. It is a more serious condition than stable angina a...
Carotid artery surgery is a procedure to restore proper blood flow to the brain.
The carotid artery brings needed blood to your brain and face. You have one of these arteries on each side of your neck. Blood flow in this artery can become partly or totally blocked by fatty material called plaque. Such a blockage can reduce the blood supply to your brain and may cause a stroke.
There are two invasive ways to treat a carotid artery that has plaque buildup in it. This article focuses on a surgery called endarterectomy.
For more information on the other procedure, see: Angioplasty with stent placement .
Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery
During carotid endarterectomy:
You will probably receive general anesthesia . This will make you unconscious and unable to feel pain. Some hospitals may use local anesthesia instead. Only the part of ...
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