Several things could be causing this. Morton's neuroma is a condition that often causing painful burning sensations in the toes. Gout can cause the kind of needle-like pain you describe; it usually shows up first in the big toes but can effect the other toes as well. Sometimes the pain is 'idiopathic'; that is, they don't know its cause and sometimes it just goes away.
With toe and foot pain always take a look at your footware as tight fitting shoes with poor support cause a great deal of our foot pain. Health Central has an excellent Foot Pain section; check it out here. Good luck!
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