Hip osteoarthritis (OA) can cause disabling pain and loss of motion. The natural result is a loss of function. Many studies of treatment for hip OA rely on pain, motion, and strength to assess results. Therefore, it's important that these measures are accurate and reliable. In this study, the intrarater reliability of muscle strength and range-of-motion for adults with hip OA is tested. Intrarater reliability refers to the ability of one person to get the same results each time a test is given. One physical therapist performed all of the hip joint motion and hip muscle strength testing. A handheld tool called a dynamometer was used to test and retest the strength of the hip muscles. The authors described the test position and procedure for each group of muscles. Two special tools were used to measure (and remeasure) five of the six hip motions. The tools used included a goniometer and an inclinometer . Motions measured included flexion, extension, internal and external rotation, and abd...
Vascular spasms temporary limit blood flow to tissue supplied by that vessel. The most common symptom is pain. Other symptoms are caused by lack of proper circulation and will vary depending on the specific organ affected:
When the spasm affects circulation in a limb, there may be pallor and a sensation of cold in that arm or leg. Limb function and movement will be impaired.
When the spasm affects circulation in the heart, there may be symptoms similar to a heart attack and irregular heartbeats. Other names for chest pain resulting from vascular spasm are Prinzmetal's angina and variant angina.
Signs and tests
These vary depending on the affected organ.
Did you know that hip bursitis can mimic back pain? Even though doctors know this, 20 percent of the LBP cases caused by hip bursitis aren't properly diagnosed. There are many possible reasons for this. Hip bursitis is a painful irritation on the side of the upper part of the hip. A jelly-like sac called the bursa sits between the hipbone and a tendon. It's designed to offer a cushion for the tendon as it slides over the bone. Hip bursitis is part of a larger group of problems called greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS). GTPS is most common in middle age--just about when many vague aches and pains begin. At first, the symptoms of GTPS may be too hard to pinpoint. This prevents a correct diagnosis. The painful symptoms may move down the thigh to the knee with numbness and tingling present. These symptoms are just like another problem called lumbar radiculopathy. Radiculopathy occurs when pressure from a spinal disc, tumor, or bone spur causes shooting pain and numbness down the leg...
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