Narcotics, or opioids (pronounced OH-pee-oydz), provide the main relief for this level of pain. There are both long-acting and short-acting opioid pain medicines:
Long-acting opioids include:
oxycodone (brand names: Roxicodone, OxyIR, OxyContin)
fentanyl (brand name: Duragesic)
morphine (brand names: MS Contin, Oramorph, Avinza, Kadian, Roxanol)
methadone (brand name: Dolophine)
Short-acting opioids include:
morphine (brand name: MSIR)
oxycodone (brand name: Percocet)
hydrocodone (brand names: Vicodin, Vicoprofen, Lortab, Lorcet, Hycodan, Zydone)
hydromorphone (brand name: Dilaudid)
fentanyl—rapid acting (brand name: Actiq)
meperidine (brand name: Demerol)
Dosage is adjusted to suppress your pain around-the-clock. Long-acting medication helps so that most of your day is pain free, and ideally you won't need to get up in the middle of the night to take another dose. Short-acting drugs are used to treat episodes of breakthrough pain.
There are many different opioids to try f...
Definition Volkmann's contracture is a deformity of the hand, fingers, and wrist caused by injury to the muscles of the forearm. See also: Compartment syndrome Alternative Names Ischemic contracture Causes, incidence, and risk factors Volkmann's contracture occurs when there is a lack of blood flow (ischemia) to the forearm. This usually occurs when there is increased pressure due to swelling, a condition called compartment syndrome. Trauma to the arm, including a crush injury or fracture, can lead to swelling that presses on blood vessels and can decrease blood flow to the arm. A prolonged decrease in blood flow will injure the nerves and muscles, causing them to become stiff (scarred) and shortened. When the muscle shortens, it pulls on the joint at the end of the muscle just as it would if it were normally contracted. But because it is stiff, the joint remains bent and cannot straighten. This condition is called a contracture. In Volkmann's contracture, the muscles of the forearm are severe...
Definition Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine, which is an important part of muscle. This article discusses the laboratory test to measure the amount of creatinine in the blood. Creatinine can also be measured with a urine test. See: Creatinine - urine Alternative Names Serum creatinine How the test is performed Blood is drawn from a vein, usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The site is cleaned with germ-killing medicine (antiseptic). The health care provider wraps an elastic band around the upper arm to apply pressure to the area and make the vein swell with blood. Next, the health care provider gently inserts a needle into the vein. The blood collects into an airtight vial or tube attached to the needle. The elastic band is removed from your arm. Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed, and the puncture site is covered to stop any bleeding. In infants or young children, a sharp tool called a lancet may be used to puncture the skin and mak...
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