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Premenstrual tenderness and swelling of the breasts; Breast tenderness - premenstrual; Breast swelling - premenstrual
Valea F, Katz V. Breast diseases. In: Katz VL, Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM. Comprehensive Gynecology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2007:chap 15.
Braverman PK. Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol . 2007; 20(1):3-12.
Yonkers KA, O'Brien PM. Premenstrual syndrome. Lancet . 2008;371(9619):1200-1210.
Fibromyalgia (FM) must be diagnosed by a qualified physician who is familiar with the illness and has experience diagnosing it. The specialists who most often diagnose and treat fibromyalgia are rheumatologists. In 1990, the American College of Rheumatology established the diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia . Both of the following must be present: A history of widespread pain in all four quadrants of the body for a minimum duration of three months, and Pain in at least 11 of 18 designated tender points when four kilograms (about 10 pounds) of pressure are applied. (See a diagram of the fibromyalgia tender points here .) Although the American College of Rheumatology does not classify fibromyalgia as a diagnosis of exclusion, there are several other illnesses that have similar symptoms and sometimes occur along with FM. Therefore, it is important that the doctor test for certain comorbid conditions as well. Which tests may be necessary wi...
A study recently published in the journal Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine found that myofascial release therapy significantly improved many of the symptoms of fibromyalgia including pain, sleep quality, anxiety and quality of life. Myofascial release therapy (MRT) is a type of massage that applies very gentle sustained pressure to various parts of the body in order to release fascial restrictions. Study Design Fibromyalgia patients were divided into two groups. The experimental group, consisting of 30 individuals, received 90-minute MRT sessions once a week for 20 weeks. The control group of 29 individuals received a weekly 30-minute session of disconnected magnetotherapy for 20 weeks. (Patients in the control group did not know they were receiving a sham therapy.) The following instruments were used to measure symptom severity:
Pain – Visual Analog Scale
Anxiety – State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
Depression – Be...
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