FROM OUR EXPERTS
A majority of patients have one question on their minds: Where the "heck" is that pain coming from? A red, painful swollen knee may hurt deep, on the side, in the middle, in the back, or just plain everywhere. A shoulder may hurt with the arm up, down or to the side. Although the question of "where" may seem simple enough, sometimes sorting out the exact location of the pain generator is an inexact science. Within the structure of a joint there exist three general areas of interest: the passive structures, the active structures and the nerves. Dissecting out the source of the pain involves the close examination of each of these areas. Once the location of the pain is found, the hope is that treatment can be directed, focused and effective.
By definition, a joint is where two bones join together to create a hinge joint , a ball-and-socket joint , a saddle joint , or one of the other types of joints found in the human body . Because the bones are not actively doing anything, just pro...
Years ago a landmark study proved that not all pinched nerves hurt. By looking at multiple cadavers, researchers found many flattened, pinched, crushed nerves that caused no evidence of pain in the person's medical records (Neary and Ochoa 1975). That really puzzled the medical community because the popular thought, at the time, was that all pinched nerves hurt . Since that theory was disproven, scientists have been trying to explain why some nerve damage hurts and some does not.
Within the past 15 years, many studies have shown the effects of inflammation on the nerve. Without any source of physical, mechanical pinching, a nerve can be damaged by the inflammatory chemicals. Such chemicals are equivalent to throwing acid on a nerve. That is why steroid injections work. The steroids block the chemical reaction and cool the nerve. However, some people know that even injections do not help all types of nerve pain. So, there must be more to this puzzle; inflammation is not the only...
Definition Alternative Names Elbow carrying angle - excessive; Excessive carrying angle of the elbow; Cubitus valgus Information With the arms extended at the sides and the palms facing forward, the forearm and hands are normally slightly away from the body. This is the normal "carrying angle" of the elbow, which is 5 to 15 degrees. This angle permits the forearms to clear the hips in swinging movements during walking, and is important when carrying objects. After certain fractures of the elbow, the carrying angle of the healed arm may increase, causing the arms to stick out too much from the body. This is called an excessive carrying angle. Or, the angle may be decreased so that the arm points toward the body, creating what is called a "gunstock deformity." Because the carrying angle varies from person to person, it is important to compare one elbow with the other when evaluating a problem with the carrying angle.
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