Damage to the spinal cord, an information superhighway that originates in the brain, is a very devastating injury that can lead to paralysis. Most people have heard of traumatic spinal cord injuries because the sudden tragedies grab headlines from time to time. But, few people have heard of spinal stenosis, a narrowing of the tube which shelters the spinal cord called the spinal canal (See Spine Anatomy 101 ). As the space tightens like a noose, this slow strangulation of the nerves in the spine can disrupt anyone’s life. Sara turned 68 years old last month. She has enjoyed good health and has been an avid golfer. But, lately she has noticed an aching pain in her legs that occurs when she is walking or standing. This new problem has really slowed her golf game down and has made it difficult for her to even do her own grocery shopping. The only way she can make it up and down the aisles is by leaning on the shopping cart because that eases her pain. Frustrated, she calls to ...
The aorta is the main artery carrying blood out of the heart. When blood leaves the heart, it flows through the aortic valve, into the aorta. In aortic stenosis, the aortic valve does not open fully. This decreases blood flow from the heart.
Aortic valve stenosis; Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction; Rheumatic aortic stenosis; Calcium aortic stenosis
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
As the aortic valve becomes more narrow, the pressure increases inside the left heart ventricle. This causes the left heart ventricle to become thicker, which decreases blood flow and can lead to chest pain. As the pressure continues to rise, blood may back up into the lungs, and you may feel short of breath. Severe forms of aortic stenosis prevent enough blood from reaching the brain and rest of the body. This can cause light-headedness and fainting.
Aortic stenosis may be present from birth (congenital), or it may develop later ...
Renal artery occlusion; Stenosis - renal artery; Occlusion - renal artery; Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD)
The treatment varies depending on the extent and severity of the symptoms. If the stenosis results in failure of a kidney, the second kidney may take over filtering and urine production for the body. Surgical repair of the stenosed area may be possible.
A balloon angioplasty (a radiographic procedure during which a balloon-tipped catheter is threaded through the artery) or a stent placement across the stenosis may be an alternative to surgery to open the stenosed area.
Antihypertensive medications may be needed to control high blood pressure.
Renal artery stenosis may cause eventual failure of the kidney if it progressively blocks the artery. This may result in chronic renal failure if there is only one functional kidney or if both renal arteries are affe...
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