When the pain of arthritis doesn't go away, replacing the problem joint may be an option. For the knee, the procedure to implant a new joint is called total knee arthroplasty (TKA). For most patients, TKA gives pain-free motion and return of function. For a small number of patients, the result isn't good. Painful swelling and loss of function can make them wish they'd never had the procedure. These patients can be helped. The doctor must make a careful search to find the cause of the problem before correcting it. There are many possible causes for a painful TKA. Problems from inside the knee may be the cause of painful symptoms. Recent changes in the design of the joint implant have helped solve some of these problems. Infection and bleeding are the first two things the doctor looks for. This can be assessed using laboratory test results. Scar tissue and pinching of the joint lining can cause a painful, stiff knee. This can be found using an arthroscope. The scope is a slender device wit...
Measuring stiffness in arthritic knees is not easy. Most often, doctors rely on the patient's report of stiffness. The most common way to measure stiffness is through the use of a self-report tool called the WOMAC . The WOMAC is a survey including 24 questions about pain, function, and stiffness in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). In this study, physical therapists use a three-camera computerized video system to measure stiffness of the knee. Two groups of adults were tested. The first group had X-ray diagnosis of KOA and reported pain in the last month. The second (control) group were healthy adults matched by age and sex. One test was performed on each person in both groups. The test was repeated a second time within two weeks of the first test. For each trial, the person sat on an exam table in a relaxed position. The thigh was supported by the table. The knee was bent with the lower leg dangling off the table. With the person relaxed, the tester straightened the leg and then re...
Generic Name: EMOLLIENTS - TOPICAL Pretty Feet Hands Top Uses
This medication has 2 types of ingredients (emollient,
keratolytic) that work together to treat or prevent dry, rough, scaly, itchy
skin (e.g., eczema, keratosis, xerosis). Dry skin is caused by a loss of water
in the upper layer of the skin. Emollients are substances that soften and
moisturize the skin and decrease itching and flaking. Emollients/moisturizers
work by forming an oily layer on the top of the skin that traps water in the
skin. Petrolatum, lanolin, mineral oil, and dimethicone are common
Lactic acid, salicylic acid, and urea are keratolytics.
They increase moisture in the skin by softening/dissolving the horny substance
(keratin) holding the top layer of skin cells together. This helps the dead
skin cells fall off and helps the skin keep more water in. Higher strengths of
urea are used to treat corns, callous, and some nail problems (e.g., ingrown...
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