A recent task force has determined that women are at higher risk for developing neck pain than men. What accounts for this gender difference? A number of factors contribute to neck pain including coping skills, personalities, work environments and physical activities. But, as a patient eloquently stated while lifting her shirt, "What about these?" Are breasts a major contributor to the higher incidence of neck pain in women? In 1996, our judicial system examined the evidence and determined (Bancroft v Tecumseh Products) that breast reduction surgery was indeed medically necessary to relieve headache , neck pain and shoulder pain. This verdict establishes the cause and effect relationship between breasts and neck pain.
A closer examination into the breast risk factor can illuminate a multitude of reasons why size A, B, C, D, or DD really matters to the spine. Let's think in terms of triple "B's".
B reasts :
Are your breasts big, small, not at all (absent) or just righ...
Spondylolisthesis (spaun-di-lo-lie-thee-sis) is a mouthful and is a common cause of low back pain (although it can exist anywhere in the spine, the lumbar spine is the most common area affected). The spinal column is a series of building blocks called vertebral bodies stacked on top of one another. Sometimes these blocks do not line up perfectly. This slight separation in the spinal column is called a spondylolisthesis .
"Doc says I have a spondy-something-or-other. Don't ask me what it is; all I know is that it hurts". Steve tries to explain his low back condition to his friend. But, he finds that he cannot explain what he does not understand. Steve has had back pain for a number of years. Every year the pain gets worse and has now become constant. His doctor sent him for x-rays recently. The x-rays showed a spondylolisthesis with disc degeneration at L5/S1. Steve could not understand his doctor's explanation of the condition. So, now he has pain and has confusion.
Computer-navigated total knee arthroplasties (replacements), or TKAs, are improving the accuracy of the implantations and studies are finding that navigation-assisted surgery is providing better outcomes in terms of alignment of the femoral (thigh) and tibial (shin) components. However, because the navigation is performed before the actual manipulations, optimal positioning is not always obtained. Errors causing misalignments can result from any of the many steps in the surgical process, from the accuracy of the navigation system to the application and manipulation of the cemented or cementless components. Up to now, previous studies have investigated the accuracy of the navigational systems and have found great differences between the results. What seems to be a particularly important issue but one that is not given a lot of notice, is the final positioning of the femoral and tibial components. While the navigational systems check the alignments throughout the process, checking after ...
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