Everyone faces the decision to 'repair or replace' when it comes to clothes, cars, computers, household possessions, and so on. Sometimes the decision is based on finances. In other cases, it's just a matter of convenience, time, or personal preferences. But when faced with the same decision for complex knee injuries, suddenly the stakes are much higher. Knee injuries so severe that there is dislocation, fracture, and/or multiple ligaments ruptured require careful consideration when planning treatment. The decision to repair versus reconstruct is an important one. In this article, a group of surgeons present an instructional course lecture on the management of complex knee ligament injuries. The information was first presented at the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons' annual meeting. Injuries of this type are usually the result of trauma that require emergency evaluation and treatment. The surgeon must quickly but thoroughly assess the extent of damage to the bones, soft tissues,...
CRPS; RSDS; Causalgia - RSD; Shoulder-hand syndrome; Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome; Sudeck's atrophy
There is no cure for CRPS, but the disease can be slowed. The main focus is on relieving the symptoms and helping people with this syndrome live as normal a life as possible.
Physical and occupational therapy should be started as early as possible. Starting an exercise program and learning to keep joints and muscles moving may prevent the disease from getting worse and help you perform everyday activities.
Medications may be used, including pain medicines, steroids, certain blood pressure medicines, bone loss medications (such as bisphosphonates like Fosamax and Actonel), and antidepressants.
Some type of talk therapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy or psychotherapy, can help teach the skills you need to live with chronic pain.
Surgical or invasive techniques that may be tried:
Injected medicine that num...
Foot Injury If you suspect that you have broken or fractured bones in a toe or foot, call a doctor, who will probably order x-rays. Even if you can walk, you still might have a fracture. People are often able to walk even if a foot bone has been fractured, particularly if it is a chipped bone or a toe fracture. Over-the-Counter Pain Relievers Over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to treat mild pain caused by muscle inflammation. Aspirin is the most common NSAID. Others include ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, Nuprin, Rufen), ketoprofen (Actron, Orudis KT), naproxen (Aleve, Naprelan), and tolmetin (Tolectin). A gel containing ibuprofen can be applied to sore joints. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) is not an NSAID, and although it is a mild pain reliever, it will not reduce inflammation. It is important to note that high doses or long-term use of any NSAID can cause gastrointestinal disturbances with sometimes serious consequences, including dangerous bleeding. ...
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