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If you are a sports fan, you have probably heard of an athlete who has torn the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Maybe you've had the same injury. The ACL is one of two ligaments that crisscross inside the knee to hold the two bones of the leg together. There are two common ways to tear or rupture the ACL. One is to keep the foot planted on the ground and twist the body over the leg. Another is getting tackled or hit from the side with a great force against the knee. A knee injury can cause only the ACL to rupture, but often there are other injuries, too. It is not uncommon to tear the ACL and damage other knee ligaments or even tear the meniscus (knee cartilage). The torn ligaments are often repaired with an operation, but a torn meniscus can't always be repaired. Sometimes part or all of the meniscus has to be removed. However, without this pad of cartilage to protect the joint, the knee suffers extra wear and tear. This can lead to joint damage years later. Doctors have tested the r...
Spondylolisthesis (spaun-di-lo-lie-thee-sis) is a mouthful and is a common cause of low back pain (although it can exist anywhere in the spine, the lumbar spine is the most common area affected). The spinal column is a series of building blocks called vertebral bodies stacked on top of one another. Sometimes these blocks do not line up perfectly. This slight separation in the spinal column is called a spondylolisthesis .
"Doc says I have a spondy-something-or-other. Don't ask me what it is; all I know is that it hurts". Steve tries to explain his low back condition to his friend. But, he finds that he cannot explain what he does not understand. Steve has had back pain for a number of years. Every year the pain gets worse and has now become constant. His doctor sent him for x-rays recently. The x-rays showed a spondylolisthesis with disc degeneration at L5/S1. Steve could not understand his doctor's explanation of the condition. So, now he has pain and has confusion.
The posterior cruciate ligament is one of the main ligaments of the knee. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries typically occur during hyperflexion or with a blow to the knee during hyperextension. Physical findings such as a positive posterior drawer test or posterior sag and standard x-rays are keys to diagnosis. Acute isolated PCL injuries often are treated conservatively with strengthening and proprioceptive exercises. Chronic isolated PCL injuries and combined ligament injuries usually require surgical reconstruction. Although the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is thought to be the strongest ligament in the knee, injury to this ligament is more common than many believe. In fact, PCL injuries may represent up to 20 percent of all knee ligament injuries. Three types of injuries result in PCL rupture: hyperflexion, with or without an anterior tibial force just below the knee hyperflexion with a downward force applied to the thigh hyperextension, often with varus (bent inward) or val...
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