Spondylolisthesis (spaun-di-lo-lie-thee-sis) is a mouthful and is a common cause of low back pain (although it can exist anywhere in the spine, the lumbar spine is the most common area affected). The spinal column is a series of building blocks called vertebral bodies stacked on top of one another. Sometimes these blocks do not line up perfectly. This slight separation in the spinal column is called a spondylolisthesis .
"Doc says I have a spondy-something-or-other. Don't ask me what it is; all I know is that it hurts". Steve tries to explain his low back condition to his friend. But, he finds that he cannot explain what he does not understand. Steve has had back pain for a number of years. Every year the pain gets worse and has now become constant. His doctor sent him for x-rays recently. The x-rays showed a spondylolisthesis with disc degeneration at L5/S1. Steve could not understand his doctor's explanation of the condition. So, now he has pain and has confusion.
How can chronic pain be prevented? Oh that I and the insurance companies knew the answer to that question!
The key is to identify those patients at risk for the development of chronic pain .
Musculoskeletal pain is a significant problem in this country: 85% of the population suffers from this affliction at some point during the employment years. Fortunately, the majority recover rather quickly from acute back pain . It is the 3% to 10% that develop long-term disability due to their chronic pain, which is a deceptively small percentage if one considers that this minority consumes significantly more than 50% of the health care dollars for this problem.
If the chronic pain group could be identified, perhaps an intervention could occur which might avoid the suffering and costs associated with pain and loss of income. Unfortunately, musculoskeletal pain is such a frequent occurrence, it would be prohibitively costly to attempt psychological interventions upon every ...
The posterior cruciate ligament is one of the main ligaments of the knee. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries typically occur during hyperflexion or with a blow to the knee during hyperextension. Physical findings such as a positive posterior drawer test or posterior sag and standard x-rays are keys to diagnosis. Acute isolated PCL injuries often are treated conservatively with strengthening and proprioceptive exercises. Chronic isolated PCL injuries and combined ligament injuries usually require surgical reconstruction. Although the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is thought to be the strongest ligament in the knee, injury to this ligament is more common than many believe. In fact, PCL injuries may represent up to 20 percent of all knee ligament injuries. Three types of injuries result in PCL rupture: hyperflexion, with or without an anterior tibial force just below the knee hyperflexion with a downward force applied to the thigh hyperextension, often with varus (bent inward) or val...
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