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Most people would be surprised to know that total hip replacements (THRs) have been around since the 1930s. Today's successful use of THRs reflects the many implant changes in design and materials that have taken place since those early attempts. In this article, orthopedic surgeons from the New York University Hospital for Joint Diseases review the history of THRs up to and including today's surface replacement arthroplasty (SRA). SRA is a type of hip replacement that replaces the arthritic surface of the joint. But it removes far less bone than the traditional total hip replacement. Because the hip resurfacing removes less bone, it may be preferable for younger patients who are expected to need a revision (second) hip replacement surgery as they get older and wear out the original implant. The surface replacement arthroplasty (SRA) is done by dislocating the femoral head out of the socket. Special powered instruments are used to shape the bone of the femoral head so that the new meta...
Alzheimer's disease is a degenerative disease of the brain. Because of this the appearance of the brain changes dramatically as the disease progresses.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) most frequently occurs in older people. But even the ‘normal' brain undergoes changes during our lifetime. The brain weighs around 350 grams at birth and increases to around 1,375 grams (about 3 pounds) by the age of 20. In fact the brain quadruples in size in the first three years of life. Then things begin to deteriorate! Brain weight starts to decline between the ages of 45 and 50 years. The brain decreases by about 11 per cent from its maximum weight in early adulthood.
In the older brain tissue loss is most obvious on its surface. There is unmistakable shrinkage in the natural convolutions in brain tissue. Changes are most marked in the forebrain and less so in the cerebellum (the area at the back of the brain mainly responsible for balance and dexterity of movement).
What is Celiac disease (CD) and how do you know if you have it?
Celiac disease is a genetic autoimmune disease. According to the Celiac Disease Foundation's web site, "Celiac Disease is a digestive disorder that affects both children and adults. When people with CD eat foods that contain gluten , it creates an immune-mediated toxic reaction that causes damage to the small intestine and does not allow food to be properly absorbed. Even small amounts of gluten in foods can affect those with CD and cause health problems. Damage can occur to the small bowel even when there are no symptoms present."
So, what is gluten then? Gluten is a protein that is found in all forms of wheat - this includes durum, semolina, spelt, and kamut. Gluten is also found in rye , barley, triticale, and some oats. Basically, all bread, pasta, cereal, and crackers made with any of these gluten-containing ingredients cannot be eaten if you are diagnosed with Celiac disease. Contrary to popular thought,...
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