Definition Ankle pain involves any discomfort in one or both ankles. Alternative Names Pain - ankle; Sprain - ankle; Ankle sprain Common Causes Ankle pain is often due to an ankle sprain. An ankle sprain is an injury to the ligaments, which connect bones to one another. In most cases, the ankle is twisted inward, causing small tears in the ligaments. The tearing leads to swelling and bruising, making it difficult to bear weight on the joint. In addition to ankle sprains, ankle pain can be caused by: Damage or swelling of tendons (which join muscles to bone) or cartilage (which cushions joints) Infection in the ankle joint Osteoarthritis , gout , rheumatoid arthritis , Reiter syndrome , and other types of arthritis Problems in areas near the ankle that can cause you to feel pain in the ankle include: Blockage of blood vessels in the leg Heel pain or injuries Nerve injuries (such as tarsal tunnel syndrome or sciatica )
Alternative Names Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema Prevention Avoid sitting or standing without moving for prolonged periods of time. When flying, stretch your legs often and get up to walk when possible. When driving, stop to stretch and walk every hour or so. Avoid wearing restrictive clothing or garters around your thighs. Exercise regularly. Lose weight if you need to. References Goldman L. Approach to the patient with possible cardiovascular disease. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 48.
Why does sitting for long periods of time increase back pain sometimes? This question has been studied for the past 50 years and researchers still find controversy when trying to answer the question. At the heart of the dilemma is a mechanical dynamic between body weight, body posture, and spinal disc load.
A loading, compressive force on a spinal disc creates a certain amount of pressure within the disc which is like a marshmallow in between two graham crackers being squished together. This pressure can be measured with special devices inserted into the disc. With various body positions like lying down, sitting, standing and bending forward, the pressure amounts vary and were first reported in the landmark study performed by Dr. Nachemson in 1981 . In this study, he found that sitting produced higher pressures in the spinal disc than standing. So, for the past thirty years, clinicians have told patients with degenerative disc related back pain to avoid prolong sitting because h...
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