FROM OUR EXPERTS
This is a condition resulting from motility disorders of the esophagus ranging from absent peristalsis to hyperperistalsis and spasm.Diffuse esophageal spasm typically causes substernal chest pain in association with difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia) of both liquids and solids. The pain may be severe and may awaken the patient from sleep. Liquids that are very hot or cold may aggravate the pain.With time, this disorder may evolve into achalasia (failure to relax smooth muscle fibers of the gastrointestinal tract). There may be reflux of recently swallowed food. Combinations of all of these with abnormal lower or upper esophageal sphincter function complete the clinical picture.Esophageal spasm may also produce a severe pain in the absence of dysphagia that is indistinguishable from angina pectoris. This pain is often described as a substernal squeezing pain and may occur in association with exercise.A specific cause is seldom found, but there may be associated reflux esophagitis (i...
A vascular spasm is a sudden, brief tightening of a blood vessel.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Vascular spasms (and heart attacks) may be caused by the use of cocaine.
SECONDARY SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION IN MEN AND WOMEN WITH MS
In multiple sclerosis, the incidence of fatigue, muscle tightness or spasms, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and pain, burning, or other discomfort can have adverse effects on the experience of sexual activity. The interference of these symptoms with sexual function can often be alleviated by taking an aggressive approach to symptom management.
One of the most common secondary sexual symptoms in MS is fatigue. Fatigue greatly interferes with sexual desire and the physical ability to initiate and sustain sexual activity. Fatigue can be managed in a number of ways, see How to Manage MS-Related Fatigue. Consider setting aside some time in the morning for sexual activity because this is often when MS fatigue is at its lowest ebb. Energy conservation techniques, such as taking naps and using ambulation aids, can preserve the energy needed for sexual activities. Choosing sexual activities and positions t...
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