Definition Acute tubular necrosis is a kidney disorder involving damage to the tubule cells of the kidneys, resulting in acute kidney failure . Alternative Names Necrosis - renal tubular; ATN; Necrosis - acute tubular Causes, incidence, and risk factors Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is caused by lack of oxygen to the kidney tissues (ischemia of the kidneys). The internal structures of the kidney, particularly the tissues of the kidney tubule, become damaged or destroyed. ATN is one of the most common structural changes that can lead to acute renal failure. ATN is one of the most common causes of kidney failure in hospitalized patients. Risks for acute tubular necrosis include: Blood transfusion reaction Injury or trauma that damages the muscles Recent major surgery Septic shock or other forms of shock Severe low blood pressure (hypotension) that lasts longer than 30 minutes Liver disease and kidney damage caused by diabetes ( diabetic nephropathy ) may make a person more susceptible to the condition. A...
Definition Acute (sudden) kidney failure is the sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to remove waste and concentrate urine without losing electrolytes . Alternative Names Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute Causes, incidence, and risk factors There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: Acute tubular necrosis ( ATN ) Autoimmune kidney disease, including:
Acute nephritic syndrome Interstitial nephritis Decreased blood flow due to very low blood pressure, which can result from:
Burns Dehydration Hemorrhage Injury Septic shock Serious illness Surgery Disorders that cause clotting within the kidney's blood vessels:
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome Idiopathic thrombocytopenic thrombotic purpura (ITTP) Malignant hypertension Transfusion reaction Scleroderma Infections that directly injure the kidney, such as:
Acute pyelonephritis Septicemia Pregnancy complications, including:
Placenta abruptio Placenta previa Urinary tract obstruction
We already know that overuse of antibiotics can instigate growth of bacteria that are resistant to conventional antibiotic treatments. In fact, the nosocomial infection rate in hospitals that contributes to hospital-acquired infections is partially due to an environment that routinely uses antibiotics. So it should come as no surprise that growing antibiotic use might be suspect in other conditions.
Martin Blaser M.D., head of the Department of Internal Medicine at New York University's Langone Medical Center, recently wrote a commentary in Nature suggesting that overuse of antibiotics may be helping to fuel conditions like diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies, asthma and obesity. He notes in the commentary that these conditions have nearly doubled in many populations over the past several decades. Though experts certainly identify a myriad of contributing causes, he now adds the "killing of healthy bacteria or flora" as an additional theoretical contributor to the p...
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