Definition Acute (sudden) kidney failure is the sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to remove waste and concentrate urine without losing electrolytes . Alternative Names Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute Causes, incidence, and risk factors There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: Acute tubular necrosis ( ATN ) Autoimmune kidney disease, including:
Acute nephritic syndrome Interstitial nephritis Decreased blood flow due to very low blood pressure, which can result from:
Burns Dehydration Hemorrhage Injury Septic shock Serious illness Surgery Disorders that cause clotting within the kidney's blood vessels:
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome Idiopathic thrombocytopenic thrombotic purpura (ITTP) Malignant hypertension Transfusion reaction Scleroderma Infections that directly injure the kidney, such as:
Acute pyelonephritis Septicemia Pregnancy complications, including:
Placenta abruptio Placenta previa Urinary tract obstruction
Chronic kidney disease in itself has been found to be an independent predictor for the development of heart disease and is associated with an overall poorer prognosis. This effect occurs throughout the entire spectrum of kidney failure ranging from those with mild kidney disease to even those who have had successful kidney transplants. In one study of a million people with kidney failure who were not yet on dialysis, the risk of developing atherosclerosis was almost 35 times more likely than the risk of needing some type of kidney replacement therapy. In fact, the American National Kidney Foundation, the American College of Cardiology, and the American Heart Association consider people with chronic kidney disease to be at equal risk of a future cardiovascular event when compared to those who have already had a heart attack . Many conditions that confer increased heart disease risk can also lead to chronic kidney damage. Some common examples are high blood pressur...
Complications Nearly 290,000 people die from heart failure each year. Nevertheless, although heart failure produces very high mortality rates, treatment advances are improving survival rates. Cardiac Cachexia. If patients with heart failure are overweight to begin with, their condition tends to be more severe. Once heart failure develops, however, an important indicator of a worsening condition is the occurrence of cardiac cachexia , which is unintentional rapid weight loss (a loss of at least 7.5% of normal weight within 6 months). Impaired Kidney Function. Heart failure weakens the hearts ability to pump blood. This can affect other parts of the body including the kidneys (which in turn can lead to fluid build-up). Decreased kidney function is common in patients with heart failure, both as a complication of heart failure and other diseases associated with heart failure (such as diabetes). Studies suggest that, in patients with heart failure, impaired kidney function increases the risks ...
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