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Risk Factors Kidney stones are one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. They are an ancient health problem. Evidence of kidney stones has been found in an Egyptian mummy estimated to be more than 7,000 years old. At this time, studies suggest that kidney stones affect more than 5% of Americans, and the rate has increased since the 1970s. Gender and Age Men. Kidney stones are more common in men than women. The risk of kidney stones increases in men in their 40s and continues to rise until age 70. Caucasian men have a higher risk than other ethnic groups. Women. The risk of kidney stones peaks in a woman's 50s. In younger women, stones are more likely to develop during the late stages of pregnancy. Pregnant women tend to have a higher calcium intake, but their kidneys do not handle the calcium as well as they did before pregnancy. Kidney stones are still rare during pregnancy, however, affecting only 1 in 1,500 pregnancies. Risk Factors in Children. Stones in the urinary tract i...
Parents and doctors beware! Antibiotic use during the first year of life probably does cause asthma!
There is enough research now that we can definitely say probably. General thinking for years has been that if a child has an infection it should be treated with antibiotics. Yet newer evidence is leaning in the direction that while antibiotics cure an acute infection, it may cause asthma later on.
The most recent study was completed by Yale University researchers , and they interviewed women during pregnancy and when the child was 6-years-old. Of the 1,401 studied:
40 percent of infants given just one dose of antibiotics developed childhood asthma and allergies.
70 percent of infants given two rounds of antibiotics developed asthma
These are pretty significant statistics, and they correlate well with past studies like this one completed in 2007 at the University of Manitoba and McGill University in Montreal.
We already know that overuse of antibiotics can instigate growth of bacteria that are resistant to conventional antibiotic treatments. In fact, the nosocomial infection rate in hospitals that contributes to hospital-acquired infections is partially due to an environment that routinely uses antibiotics. So it should come as no surprise that growing antibiotic use might be suspect in other conditions.
Martin Blaser M.D., head of the Department of Internal Medicine at New York University's Langone Medical Center, recently wrote a commentary in Nature suggesting that overuse of antibiotics may be helping to fuel conditions like diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies, asthma and obesity. He notes in the commentary that these conditions have nearly doubled in many populations over the past several decades. Though experts certainly identify a myriad of contributing causes, he now adds the "killing of healthy bacteria or flora" as an additional theoretical contributor to the p...
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