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Definition Acute (sudden) kidney failure is the sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to remove waste and concentrate urine without losing electrolytes . Alternative Names Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute Causes, incidence, and risk factors There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: Acute tubular necrosis ( ATN ) Autoimmune kidney disease, including:
Acute nephritic syndrome Interstitial nephritis Decreased blood flow due to very low blood pressure, which can result from:
Burns Dehydration Hemorrhage Injury Septic shock Serious illness Surgery Disorders that cause clotting within the kidney's blood vessels:
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome Idiopathic thrombocytopenic thrombotic purpura (ITTP) Malignant hypertension Transfusion reaction Scleroderma Infections that directly injure the kidney, such as:
Acute pyelonephritis Septicemia Pregnancy complications, including:
Placenta abruptio Placenta previa Urinary tract obstruction
Alternative Names Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure Prevention Treating the condition that is causing the problem may help prevent or delay chronic kidney disease. People who have diabetes should control their blood sugar and blood pressure levels and should not smoke. References Tolkoff-Rubin N. Treatment of irreversible renal failure. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: chap 133. Mitch WE. Chronic kidney disease. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: chap 131. KDOQI. KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline and Clinical Practice Recommendations for anemia in chronic kidney disease: 2007 update of hemoglobin target. Am J Kidney Dis . 2007; 50:471-530. KDOQI; National Kidney Foundation II. Clinical practice guidlines and clinical practice recommendations for anemia in chronic kidney dis...
Risk Factors Kidney stones are one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. They are an ancient health problem. Evidence of kidney stones has been found in an Egyptian mummy estimated to be more than 7,000 years old. At this time, studies suggest that kidney stones affect more than 5% of Americans, and the rate has increased since the 1970s. Gender and Age Men. Kidney stones are more common in men than women. The risk of kidney stones increases in men in their 40s and continues to rise until age 70. Caucasian men have a higher risk than other ethnic groups. Women. The risk of kidney stones peaks in a woman's 50s. In younger women, stones are more likely to develop during the late stages of pregnancy. Pregnant women tend to have a higher calcium intake, but their kidneys do not handle the calcium as well as they did before pregnancy. Kidney stones are still rare during pregnancy, however, affecting only 1 in 1,500 pregnancies. Risk Factors in Children. Stones in the urinary tract i...
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