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Definition Acute (sudden) kidney failure is the sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to remove waste and concentrate urine without losing electrolytes . Alternative Names Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute Causes, incidence, and risk factors There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: Acute tubular necrosis ( ATN ) Autoimmune kidney disease, including:
Acute nephritic syndrome Interstitial nephritis Decreased blood flow due to very low blood pressure, which can result from:
Burns Dehydration Hemorrhage Injury Septic shock Serious illness Surgery Disorders that cause clotting within the kidney's blood vessels:
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome Idiopathic thrombocytopenic thrombotic purpura (ITTP) Malignant hypertension Transfusion reaction Scleroderma Infections that directly injure the kidney, such as:
Acute pyelonephritis Septicemia Pregnancy complications, including:
Placenta abruptio Placenta previa Urinary tract obstruction
Alternative Names Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure Prevention Treating the condition that is causing the problem may help prevent or delay chronic kidney disease. People who have diabetes should control their blood sugar and blood pressure levels and should not smoke. References Tolkoff-Rubin N. Treatment of irreversible renal failure. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: chap 133. Mitch WE. Chronic kidney disease. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: chap 131. KDOQI. KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline and Clinical Practice Recommendations for anemia in chronic kidney disease: 2007 update of hemoglobin target. Am J Kidney Dis . 2007; 50:471-530. KDOQI; National Kidney Foundation II. Clinical practice guidlines and clinical practice recommendations for anemia in chronic kidney dis...
Cough, cold and flu season has arrived for most of the northern half of America. Doctor's offices are busier trying to squeeze patients in for sick visits. Emergency departments and Urgent Care Centers are shuffling patients in and out of examining rooms as they attempt to keep up with the increased demand for acute medical care. Some parents are getting less sleep as they listen to their children cough through the wee hours of the morning. Adults with upper respiratory tract infections try to decide whether they can afford another day off from work vs. go to work and feel miserable, as co-workers attempt to avoid them like the plague.
This time of year prescriptions for antibiotics skyrocket as doctors desperately attempt to remedy their patients that have sinus complaints. But how effective are antibiotics in these situations?
The majority of patients in health care settings that present with complaints of runny nose, nasal congestion, cough and headache have a viral ...
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