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Alternative Names Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema Prevention Avoid sitting or standing without moving for prolonged periods of time. When flying, stretch your legs often and get up to walk when possible. When driving, stop to stretch and walk every hour or so. Avoid wearing restrictive clothing or garters around your thighs. Exercise regularly. Lose weight if you need to. References Goldman L. Approach to the patient with possible cardiovascular disease. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 48.
When a patient presents to his or her general practitioner (GP) with a knee injury, the doctor relies on the patient's history (what happened) and a physical exam (clinical tests) to figure out what's wrong. Is there swelling in the joint? Is there damage inside the joint? Can a physician even tell these things with a history and physical exam (H&PE)? When are additional tests such as X-rays or MRIs needed? Researchers from the Netherlands take on these questions in a study of 134 patients with a traumatic knee injury. Most (but not all) injuries were sports-related. Each patient was questioned about their symptoms and then examined by a physical therapist using a standard series of tests for the knee. Tests included range-of-motion, palpation, stability, and meniscal (knee cartilage) tests. Three special tests were done to look for effusion (swelling). The first was palpation of the popliteal fossa (back of the knee). The second was a palpatory test called the minor effusion test ....
Definition Swollen gums are abnormally enlarged, bulging, or protruding. Alternative Names Swollen gums; Gingival swelling Considerations Gum swelling is quite common and may involve one or many of the triangular-shaped bits of gum between nearby teeth. These sections are called papillae. Occasionally, the gums swell significantly, blocking the teeth completely. Common Causes Gingivitis Infection by a virus or fungus Malnutrition Poorly fitting dentures Pregnancy Sensitivity to toothpaste or mouthwash Scurvy Side effect of a drug such as Dilantin or phenobarbital
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