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Because bruises are usually the direct result of an injury, the following are important safety recommendations:
Teach children how to be safe.
Be mindful to avoid falls around the house. For example, be careful when climbing on ladders or other objects. Avoid standing or kneeling on counter-tops.
Wear seat belts in motor vehicles.
Wear proper sports equipment to pad those areas most frequently bruised (thigh pads, hip guards, and elbow pads in football and hockey; shin guards and knee pads in soccer and basketball).
Ballas M, Kraut EH. Bleeding and bruising: a diagnostic work-up. Am Fam Physician . 2008 Apr 15;77(8):1117-24.
Brinker MR, OConnor DP, Almekinders LC, et al. Physiology of Injury to Musculoskeletal Structures: 1. Muscle and Tendon Injury. In: DeLee JC, Drez D Jr, Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drezs Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saun...
Tripping on an object is the most common cause of falls for people 65 years old and older. Hip fractures and even death are the result of such falls. How well can adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA) avoid suddenly appearing obstacles? In this study from the Motion Analysis Laboratory at the University of Chicago adults with and without knee arthritis were tested to answer this question. As the researchers expected, people with painful knee arthritis were less able to avoid the obstacle. The greater the pain level, the less chance they had of missing the obstacle. Tests of single-leg balance also showed the arthritic group had a harder time missing obstacles. The results of the study showed that as pain increased the ability to stand on the painful leg decreased. Patients in pain couldn't balance on the arthritic leg long enough to avoid tripping over the object. Pain affects gait and balance and increases the risk of falling. The authors report that patients with knee OA often can't rea...
Knee pain from arthritis is often the reason for having a knee joint replacement called total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The TKA reduces pain but at a price. The quadriceps muscle along the front of the thigh straightens the knee. Control of this muscle is reduced after TKA. This problem can persist a year or more after surgery. Poor muscle performance has been linked with increased risk of falling, reduced walking speed, and difficulty getting up out of a chair. Many studies have shown that a loss of knee extension is common after TKA. This study goes beyond that and looks at the cause for the decrease in muscle force after TKA. Rehab suggestions are offered. The key problem is failure of voluntary activation. This means that the patient is trying hard to straighten the knee, but the muscle isn't contracting fully. Pain, swelling, and joint damage may be part of the cause. However, simply reducing knee pain doesn't improve muscle contraction. This study shows the importance of special musc...
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