Pain is a very difficult thing to measure. There's no lab test that can put it into an absolute number like a white blood cell count. Yet with 50 million chronic pain sufferers in the United States alone, there's got to be a better way to measure pain than the visual analog scale (VAS). Using this scale, patients assign a number from zero to 10 to rate their pain (zero is no pain, 10 is the worst pain). This is so subjective, even the patients can't tell if a rating of three today is better or worse than yesterday's three. Efforts are being made by pain researchers to develop an interactive, intuitive computer program that will help quantify (put into numbers) variable describing and defining pain (e.g., location, intensity, duration). There is also a need for some kind of chronic pain assessment tool that can measure improvement in pain levels. Being able to measure improvement would help researchers identify which treatment approaches are working best. In this study, researchers from ...
Primates, including human beings, are separated from the rest of the animal kingdom by one important digit - the first digit, the thumb. Imagine trying to hold onto a needle, a pen, or a hammer without a thumb; nearly impossible. That is why when the thumb becomes painful and useless a person can lose a job, lose a hobby, and lose the ability to live independently. Three common conditions affect the thumb: arthritis , de Quervain's Tendonitis, and carpal tunnel syndrome . Unfortunately, these three conditions usually go hand-in-hand and attack the same thumb.
In order to understand the thumb, one must know about the most important joint which is at the base of the thumb and called the carpometacarpal joint (CMC joint). The first CMC joint is the only CMC joint that has full range of motion: abduction, adduction, flexion, extension, and rotation. This motion is what gives the thumb full function for grasping, holding, pinching, and squeezing. And out of all the motions of the thum...
The middle joint of the toe is bent. The end part of the toe bends down into a claw-like deformity. At first, you may be able to move and straighten the toe. Over time, you will no longer be able to move the toe.
A corn often forms on the top of the toe. A callus is found on the sole of the foot.
Walking or wearing shoes can be painful.
Signs and tests
A physical examination of the foot confirms that you have hammer toe. The health care provider may find decreased and painful movement in the toes.
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