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Definition Swollen gums are abnormally enlarged, bulging, or protruding. Alternative Names Swollen gums; Gingival swelling Considerations Gum swelling is quite common and may involve one or many of the triangular-shaped bits of gum between nearby teeth. These sections are called papillae. Occasionally, the gums swell significantly, blocking the teeth completely. Common Causes Gingivitis Infection by a virus or fungus Malnutrition Poorly fitting dentures Pregnancy Sensitivity to toothpaste or mouthwash Scurvy Side effect of a drug such as Dilantin or phenobarbital
Premenstrual tenderness and swelling of the breasts; Breast tenderness - premenstrual; Breast swelling - premenstrual
Valea F, Katz V. Breast diseases. In: Katz VL, Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM. Comprehensive Gynecology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2007:chap 15.
Braverman PK. Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol . 2007; 20(1):3-12.
Yonkers KA, O'Brien PM. Premenstrual syndrome. Lancet . 2008;371(9619):1200-1210.
Recently, many patients have come to me, concerned regarding the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw secondary to Fosamax. As many rheumatoid arthritis patients suffer also from osteoporosis, it is reasonable to discuss this issue which has been appearing in newspapers across the country.
Osteonecrosis refers to bone death; the bone involved cannot repair itself because it lacks the normal blood supply. There have been hundreds of cases reported of osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients taking bisphosphonate drugs, of which Fosamax is one. While many of the cases occurred in cancer patients on intravenous bisphosphonates, there have been reports of osteonecrosis in women who have had teeth pulled and are also taking Fosamax.
Osteonecrosis of the jaw can lead to infection and destruction of the jawbone, leading in turn to disfigurement of the face. It is for this reason that patients on drugs such as Fosamax need to have aggressive preventive dental care, and should be warned of the ...
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