Corns and calluses are thickened layers of skin caused by repeated pressure or friction.
Calluses and corns
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Corns and calluses are caused by pressure or friction on skin. A corn is thickened skin on the top or side of a toe, usually from shoes that do not fit properly. A callus is thickened skin on your hands or the soles of your feet.
The thickening of the skin is a protective reaction. For example, farmers and rowers get callused hands that prevent them from getting painful blisters. People with bunions often develop a callus over the bunion because it rubs against the shoe.
Neither corns nor calluses are serious conditions.
The middle joint of the toe is bent. The end part of the toe bends down into a claw-like deformity. At first, you may be able to move and straighten the toe. Over time, you will no longer be able to move the toe.
A corn often forms on the top of the toe. A callus is found on the sole of the foot.
Walking or wearing shoes can be painful.
Signs and tests
A physical examination of the foot confirms that you have hammer toe. The health care provider may find decreased and painful movement in the toes.
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