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Definition Mitral stenosis is a heart valve disorder that involves the mitral valve. This valve separates the upper and lower chambers on the left side of the heart. Stenosis refers to a condition in which the valve does not open fully, restricting blood flow. Alternative Names Mitral valve obstruction Causes, incidence, and risk factors Blood that flows between different chambers of your heart must flow through a valve. The valve between the two chambers on the left side of your heart is called the mitral valve. It opens up enough so that blood can flow from one chamber of your heart (left atria) to the next chamber (left ventricle). It then closes, keeping blood from flowing backwards. Mitral stenosis refers to when the valve cannot open as wide. As a result, less blood flows to the body. The upper heart chamber swells as pressure builds up. Blood may flow back into the lungs. Fluid then collects in the lung tissue ( pulmonary edema ), making it hard to breathe. See also: heart failure . In a...
Definition Meatal stenosis is a narrowing of the opening of the urethra, the tube through which urine leaves the body. Alternative Names Urethral meatal stenosis Causes, incidence, and risk factors Meatal stenosis can affect both males and females, but it is more common in males. In males, it is often caused by swelling and irritation (inflammation) after a newborn is circumcised . This leads to abnormal tissue growth and scarring across the opening of the urethra. The problem is usually not found until the child is toilet trained. In females, this condition is present at birth (congenital). Although less common, metal stenosis may also affect adult women. Risks include: Having multiple endoscopic procedures ( cystoscopy ) Severe, long-term atrophic vaginitis
Stroke secondary to carotid stenosis is a group of brain disorders involving loss of brain function.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Stroke secondary to carotid stenosis occurs when blood flow to the brain is blocked. This is usually related to hardening of the arteries ( atherosclerosis ), particularly those arteries in the neck. Carotid stenosis means hardening of the neck arteries.
Atherosclerosis occurs when a sticky substance called plaque builds up in the inner lining of the arteries. The plaque may block or narrow an artery. A blood clot may occur at the site of the plaque. If a piece of plaque breaks off and travels to an artery in the brain, it can cause a blockage or even a stroke. The risks for stroke secondary to carotid stenosis are the same as atherosclerosis.
Stroke secondary to carotid stenosis is most common in older people. Often times, patients with stroke secondary to carotid stenosis have atherosclerotic heart disease or diabetes
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