Shin splints , stress fractures , and compartment syndrome are the three most common causes of lower leg or shin pain in athletes. Runners are especially prone to these types of overuse injuries. A correct diagnosis is needed to ensure proper treatment. But symptoms are often the same or similar making an accurate diagnosis difficult. In this article, the causes of shin pain, their diagnosis, and treatment are reviewed. The physician must rely on the history and physical exam. Was there an injury? What kind of specific trauma occurred? What are the symptoms? Where is the pain located? The exam includes evaluation of motion, gait (walking pattern), tenderness, flexibility, and strength. Some tests are as simple as squeezing the soft tissues or single-leg toes raises, which stress the muscles and tendons. X-rays may be needed to confirm stress reactions or fractures. But X-rays only show fractures half the time when they are really there. So when diagnosing stress fractures, a bone scan is ...
Knee scope - arthroscopic lateral retinacular release; Synovectomy; Patellar debridement
Expectations after surgery
Use of arthroscopy has reduced the need to surgically open the knee joint. This has resulted in less pain and stiffness, fewer complications, decreased length (if any) of hospitalization, and faster recovery time. Expectations vary widely with the indication for the surgery.
Surgery done for a meniscal tear or loose bodies when the patient has no other problems (like arthritis) is usually uncomplicated, and most patients can expect a full recovery. The presence of arthritis dramatically reduces the effectiveness of arthroscopy and up to 50% of patients may not improve post-operatively.
Arthroscopic removal of the synovium (arthroscopic synovectomy) can be of great benefit to patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthroscopic or arthroscopic-assisted surgery done to repair the meniscus or reconstruct ligaments in the knee is much more...
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