Chronic kidney disease in itself has been found to be an independent predictor for the development of heart disease and is associated with an overall poorer prognosis. This effect occurs throughout the entire spectrum of kidney failure ranging from those with mild kidney disease to even those who have had successful kidney transplants. In one study of a million people with kidney failure who were not yet on dialysis, the risk of developing atherosclerosis was almost 35 times more likely than the risk of needing some type of kidney replacement therapy. In fact, the American National Kidney Foundation, the American College of Cardiology, and the American Heart Association consider people with chronic kidney disease to be at equal risk of a future cardiovascular event when compared to those who have already had a heart attack . Many conditions that confer increased heart disease risk can also lead to chronic kidney damage. Some common examples are high blood pressur...
What exactly is a "black box" warning? Simply put, it's the strongest warning that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) can require on a drug's packaging. The FDA requires the black box warning when studies suggest a drug can cause a serious or life-threatening side effect. The text of the warning is set apart from other information in a black box, so that doctors, pharmacists, and patients can easily see it. What did the FDA advisory panel recommend? The FDA itself hasn't made a decision about acetaminophen, but an FDA advisory panel has made 10 recommendations concerning the drug. Among those recommendations, the panel voted to remove acetaminophen-containing painkillers such as Vicodin, Tylenol 3, and Percocet from the nation's formularies. It also voted in favor of removing all acetaminophen-containing prescription drugs from the market. But the panel voted to keep over-the-counter (OTC) pills that combine acetaminophen and other ingredients, su...
Urinary tract infection - complicated; Infection - kidney; Complicated urinary tract infection; Kidney infection
The goals of treatment are to:
Control the infection
Due to the high death rate in the elderly population and the risk of complications, prompt treatment is recommended. Sudden (acute) symptoms usually go away within 48 to 72 hours after appropriate treatment.
Your doctor will select the appropriate antibiotics after a urine culture identifies the bacteria that is causing the infection. In acute cases, you may receive a 10- to 14-day course of antibiotics.
If you have a severe infection or cannot take antibiotics by mouth, you may be given antibiotics through a vein (intravenously) at first.
Chronic pyelonephritis may require long-term antibiotic therapy. It is very important that you finish all the medicine.
Commonly used antibiotics include the following:
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