Aortic valve stenosis; Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction; Rheumatic aortic stenosis; Calcium aortic stenosis
People with aortic stenosis may have no symptoms at all until late in the course of the disease. The diagnosis may have been made when the healthcare provider heard a heart murmur and then performed additional tests.
Symptoms of aortic stenosis include:
Crushing, squeezing, pressure, tightness
Pain increases with exercise, relieved with rest
Under the chest bone, may move to other areas
, or dizziness with activity
Sensation of feeling the heart beat ( palpitations )
In infants and children, symptoms include:
Becoming tired or fatigued with exertion more easily than others (in mild cases)
Serious breathing problems that develop wi...
Those laboratory mice have been at it again. This time, we discover that when mice stop drinking moderate levels of alcohol they can become depressed around two weeks later. Mice are commonly used to model the effects of a number of conditions associated with human behavior. But how do we know when a mouse is depressed?
According to Clyde W.Hodge, Ph.D., professor of psychiatry and pharmacology at the UNC School of Medicine, the answer is found in the Porsolt Swim Test. Mice are very good swimmers, so placing them in water for six minutes presents no difficulty. The amount of time a mouse spends immobile is used as the measure for despair or depression. The longer a mouse floats, the more depressed it is considered to be.
According to Hodge, depression in mice is associated with a marked reduction in neural stem cells within the hippocampus region of the brain. Extending the model to humans, Hodge says:
" . . . people who drink moderate amounts of alcohol s...
Lumbar Decompression Surgery is a treatment for spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal). Spinal stenosis is narrowing of the spinal canal, which may result in pressure on the internal structures. Vague leg pain , numbness, and tingling distributed over the anterior and posterior thighs and calves are brought on, classically, by spinal postures that mechanically compromise the neural canal and foramina (openings for nerves). Less often, this syndrome is precipitated by the increased metabolic and vascular demands of the lower extremities, causing a compromise of neural blood flow. Both these mechanisms can occur at the same time. Degenerative spinal stenosis develops with aging. Everyone begins with a different spinal canal size and shape. With aging, the spinal canal volume decreases. If the original size is large, the aging process may not cause symptoms, but if the original size is small, pressure on the neural elements over time may cause clinical symptoms. Initial variations ...
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