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Definition CO2 is carbon dioxide. This article discusses the laboratory test to measures the amount of carbon dioxide in the liquid part of your blood, called the serum. In the body, most of the CO2 is in the form of a substance called bicarbonate (HCO3-). Therefore, the CO2 blood test is really a measure of your blood bicarbonate level. See also: Blood gases Alternative Names Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum How the test is performed A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture How to prepare for the test Your health care provider may tell you to stop taking any drugs that may affect test results. Corticosteroids and excessive use of antacids can increase bicarbonate levels. How the test will feel When the needle is inserted to draw blood, you may feel moderate pain, or only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing. Why the test is performed The CO2 test is most often done as part of an...
Emphysema is one of the main diseases included in the diagnosis “chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” or COPD. The other is chronic bronchitis. Most people with COPD have a combination of both. Some people have mostly chronic bronchitis, while others have mostly emphysema. In most cases, COPD is a disease caused by cigarette smoking.
Recent research suggests that pipe and cigar smoking may also contribute to lung abnormalities. The lungs have two basic functions: to bring in oxygen from the air and get rid of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is produced as a normal part of the body’s metabolism. Both functions may be abnormal in COPD.
COPD is classified as mild, moderate, moderate-severe, severe, or very severe, and severity is determined mostly by the results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs, also know as lung function tests), which measure how much air a person can blow out of the lungs. COPD causes air to flow more slowly through the airways (tubes in t...
Alternative Names High-density lipoprotein test Normal Values In general, your risk for heart disease, including a heart attack, increases if your HDL cholesterol level is less than 40 mg/dL. An HDL 60 mg/dL or above helps protect against heart disease. Women tend to have higher HDL cholesterol than men. Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results. What abnormal results mean Low HDL levels may be a sign that you have an increased risk for atherosclerotic heart disease . A low HDL level may also be associated with: Familial combined hyperlipidemia Noninsulin-dependent diabetes (NIDD) Use of certain drugs such as anabolic steroids, antipsychotics, beta blockers, corticosteroids, and protease inhibitors
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