Definition End-stage kidney disease is the complete, or almost complete failure of the kidneys to function. The main function of the kidneys is to remove wastes and excess water from the body. Alternative Names Renal failure - end stage; Kidney failure - end stage; ESRD Causes, incidence, and risk factors End-stage kidney disease (ESRD) occurs when the kidneys are no longer able to function at a level needed for day-to-day life. It usually occurs when chronic kidney disease has worsened to the point at which kidney function is less than 10% of normal. ESRD almost always follows chronic kidney disease. A person may have gradual worsening of kidney function for 10 - 20 years or more before progressing to ESRD. Patients who have reached this stage need dialysis or a kidney transplant . The most common causes of ESRD in the U.S. are diabetes and high blood pressure . See Chronic kidney disease for a complete list of causes.
"You have end stage COPD..." is possibly one of the most frightening - and confusing - things a person can hear.
Let's talk about the four stages of COPD and what it means for you. Here are three simple steps that anybody who has heard these dreaded words - and anybody with chronic lung disease for that matter - should follow.
1.) Get the Facts Straight.
When somebody, anybody, tells you you're at a certain stage of a disease, ask questions.
First, find out what it is that determines that stage and, next, where you fit in.
The very first question I ask when a new patient comes in to Pulmonary Rehab is: "What has the doctor told you is going on in your lungs?" The answer tells me a lot about what the patient has been told, what they understand about it and what it means to them. (It's interesting to note that one study revealed that over 26% of patients were unaware of what their COPD diagnosis meant!) Most of the time when I ask patients what t...
Children and teenagers are not little adults; they cannot be treated either medically or psychosocially like adults. The diagnosis of diabetes takes on very different ramifications depending on the age of the child. The tasks related to diabetes management are delegated to different family members based on the child's cognitive and physical abilities. Therefore, diabetes related tasks evolve as children pass through different developmental stages. Because of these different stages, diabetes becomes a new diagnosis with different treatment goals as each child enters a new phase of development. The strategies utilized to care for toddlers will not necessarily apply to those needed for a school aged child or adolescent. Diabetes therapy is in constant transition as children grow. Herein lays the discordance of blood sugar monitoring in a toddler and perhaps a school age child vs. an adolescent. Expectations are very different depending on the developmental stage of the child.
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