End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is that stage of kidney impairment which is irreversible, cannot be controlled by conservative management alone, and requires dialysis or kidney transplantation to maintain life. There are two types of kidney failure: acute and chronic . Acute kidney failure is a temporary decline in kidney function that can most often be corrected. Chronic kidney failure, on the other hand, is a permanent condition, meaning that once it occurs, the kidneys cannot be made to function again. Chronic kidney failure may be the result of heredity, as with polycystic kidney disease , or may be caused by prolonged medical conditions, such as high blood pressure or diabetes . Persons with chronic renal failure are referred to as having end-stage renal disease. The term indicates that the patient must rely on some type of medical treatment to help replace the loss of kidney function. The treatment alternatives for ESRD include hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantatio...
"You have end stage COPD..." is possibly one of the most frightening - and confusing - things a person can hear.
Let's talk about the four stages of COPD and what it means for you. Here are three simple steps that anybody who has heard these dreaded words - and anybody with chronic lung disease for that matter - should follow.
1.) Get the Facts Straight.
When somebody, anybody, tells you you're at a certain stage of a disease, ask questions.
First, find out what it is that determines that stage and, next, where you fit in.
The very first question I ask when a new patient comes in to Pulmonary Rehab is: "What has the doctor told you is going on in your lungs?" The answer tells me a lot about what the patient has been told, what they understand about it and what it means to them. (It's interesting to note that one study revealed that over 26% of patients were unaware of what their COPD diagnosis meant!) Most of the time when I ask patients what t...
You develop diabetes which can lead to depression which can lead to unhealthy habits which can lead to a worsening of diabetes and.....the vicious cycle continues.
Experts know that depression can have a severely negative impact on physical health. Studies now show that there's a connection between the severity of depressive symptoms and the increased likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes. And patients already coping with diabetes - are at risk of developing or exacerbating their depression. So patients and doctors need to understand the duality interaction between the two conditions.
What the studies have also shown is that if depression is instigated, the diabetes patient will typically turn to more food or less healthy food, which, will clearly make their blood sugars run high and cause further damage internally. They may also smoke, drink alcohol or abandon exercise (if it was in place) due to ongoing depression - all things that will...
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