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The usual ankle injury is a sprain - the tearing or excessive stretching of the ligaments that hold the ankle bones in position. Of all the joints in the body, none is as complex as the ankle. Its intricate structure of bones, tendons, and ligaments is under the control of an equally complex group of muscles. The variety of movements performed by the ankle subject it to forces of a magnitude far out of proportion to its size. It is little wonder that ankle injuries are the most common of all joint injuries - about 1 million each year, of which approximately 85 percent are sprains . When the ligaments that stabilize the ankle are overstretched or torn, the result is a sprained ankle, one of the most common exercise-related injuries. Although the risk is greatest during workouts that involve explosive side-by-side motion, such as in tennis or basketball, you can sprain an ankle during any weight-bearing activity, including walking. Even sedentary people are vulnerable, since inactivity caus...
Definition Ankle pain involves any discomfort in one or both ankles. Alternative Names Pain - ankle; Sprain - ankle; Ankle sprain Common Causes Ankle pain is often due to an ankle sprain. An ankle sprain is an injury to the ligaments, which connect bones to one another. In most cases, the ankle is twisted inward, causing small tears in the ligaments. The tearing leads to swelling and bruising, making it difficult to bear weight on the joint. In addition to ankle sprains, ankle pain can be caused by: Damage or swelling of tendons (which join muscles to bone) or cartilage (which cushions joints) Infection in the ankle joint Osteoarthritis , gout , rheumatoid arthritis , Reiter syndrome , and other types of arthritis Problems in areas near the ankle that can cause you to feel pain in the ankle include: Blockage of blood vessels in the leg Heel pain or injuries Nerve injuries (such as tarsal tunnel syndrome or sciatica )
Foot care for diabetics
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes -- 201. Diabetes Care . 201;34:S11-S61.
Inzuchhi SE and Sherwin RS. Type 1 diabetes mellitus. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 247.
Inzuchhi SE and Sherwin RS. Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 248.
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