In 1988, I developed a lump in my right breast. I was in my mid twenties and while I pointed it out to my doctors -- no one was alarmed. Finally in 1991, I started to have some pain associated and I decided to take it more seriously and sought the consultation of a breast surgeon. At my behest, he took the lump out and the biopsy read "dense fibrous tissue". Many people have fiber cystic tissue, but the lumps in my breasts were different shapes, hard and many. Size would change depending on stress, menstrual cycle and caffeine consumption and sometimes they felt tender, but most of the time I didn't feel them! In the following years, my gynecologists referred me to breast oncologists for my check ups, because the lumps are too many and the tissue is so unclear, they did not want the liability. I started having mammograms when I was 34, and the comment was my “mammograms look like a snow storm!” I started to ask &q...
Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament are common among young athletes. Most of these ruptures occur as a result of a noncontact event. Usually, the athlete is landing from a jump with the knee in just the right amount of torque to rupture the ligament. But whether from a noncontact or contact injury, the exact mechanism of injury remains unknown. In this study, researchers used MRIs to identify patterns of bone bruising in athletes with ACL injuries. Studying the impact on bone at the time of injury was helpful. They compared the depth, location, and intensity of bone bruising with the amount of energy generated in the knee at the time of the injury. They found that there was much more bruising in the bone of the noncontact group. The greater amount of bruising in this group points to a larger amount of energy and more damage done with a noncontact injury. Most of the bone bruising associated with ACL ruptures in both groups occurred in the lateral compartment of the knee. The mecha...
A breast lump is a swelling, protuberance, or lump in the breast.
Normal breast tissue is present in both males and females of all ages. This tissue responds to hormonal changes and, therefore, certain lumps can come and go.
Breast lumps may appear at all ages:
Infants may have breast lumps related to estrogen from the mother. The lump generally goes away on its own as the estrogen clears from the baby's body. It can happen to boys and girls.
Young girls often develop "breast buds" that appear just before the beginning of puberty. These bumps may be tender. They are common around age 9, but may happen as early as age 6.
Teenage boys may develop breast enlargement and lumps because of hormonal changes in mid-puberty. Although this may distress the teen, the lumps or enlargement generally go away on their own over a period of months.
Breast lumps in an adult woman raise concer...
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