Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament are common among young athletes. Most of these ruptures occur as a result of a noncontact event. Usually, the athlete is landing from a jump with the knee in just the right amount of torque to rupture the ligament. But whether from a noncontact or contact injury, the exact mechanism of injury remains unknown. In this study, researchers used MRIs to identify patterns of bone bruising in athletes with ACL injuries. Studying the impact on bone at the time of injury was helpful. They compared the depth, location, and intensity of bone bruising with the amount of energy generated in the knee at the time of the injury. They found that there was much more bruising in the bone of the noncontact group. The greater amount of bruising in this group points to a larger amount of energy and more damage done with a noncontact injury. Most of the bone bruising associated with ACL ruptures in both groups occurred in the lateral compartment of the knee. The mecha...
For fibrocystic changes, birth control pills are often helpful. Other women are helped by:
Avoiding caffeine and chocolate
Limiting fat and increasing fiber in the diet
Taking vitamin E, vitamin B complex, or evening primrose oil supplements
Call your health care provider if
Call your doctor if:
The skin on your breast appears dimpled or wrinkled (like the peel of an orange)
You find a new breast lump during your monthly self-exam
You have bruising on your breast, but did not experience any injury
You have nipple discharge, especially if it is bloody or pinkish (blood-tinged)
Your nipple is inverted (turned inward) but normally is not inverted
Also call if:
You are a woman, age 20 or older, and want guidance on how to perform a breast self-examination
You are a woman over age 40 and have not had a mammogram in the past year
What to expect at your...
A breast lump is a swelling, protuberance, or lump in the breast.
Normal breast tissue is present in both males and females of all ages. This tissue responds to hormonal changes and, therefore, certain lumps can come and go.
Breast lumps may appear at all ages:
Infants may have breast lumps related to estrogen from the mother. The lump generally goes away on its own as the estrogen clears from the baby's body. It can happen to boys and girls.
Young girls often develop "breast buds" that appear just before the beginning of puberty. These bumps may be tender. They are common around age 9, but may happen as early as age 6.
Teenage boys may develop breast enlargement and lumps because of hormonal changes in mid-puberty. Although this may distress the teen, the lumps or enlargement generally go away on their own over a period of months.
Breast lumps in an adult woman raise concer...
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