The Chief of Services inevitably begins the year's instructions to the new medical students by teaching "a singularly important principle of medicine." He asked a nurse to get him a sample of urine. He then talked at length about diabetes mellitus. "Diabetes," he said, "is a Greek name; but the Romans noticed that the bees like the urine of diabetics, so they added the word mellitus which means sweet as honey. Well, as you know, you may find sugar in the urine of a diabetic..." By now, the nurse had returned with a sample of urine which he promptly held up like a trophy. We stared at that straw colored fluid as if we had never seen such a thing before. Chief of Services then startled us. He dipped his finger into the urine, then licked his finger with the tip of his tongue. Could he detect a faint taste of sugar? The sample was passed on to us for our opinions. We all dipped a finger into the fluid, all of us foolishly licked our fingers. "Now,&quo...
Taping the knee has become a standard method of treating pain caused by a poorly aligned kneecap ( patella ). The idea is that the tape helps hold the kneecap in better alignment. But does the tape actually improve the position of the kneecap? Past research is unclear. This study involved 16 young women with alignment problems of their patella. Researchers took pictures of the bones of the subjects' knees using computed tomography (CT). The CT scans were used to see the position of the knee caps before and after taping the knee, and with or without having the subject tighten the quadriceps muscle. Only four knees showed even a slight improvement in patellar alignment with taping. In the rest of the knees, taping made no difference in alignment at all. Patellar taping may indeed help ease pain or provide support for the knee cap. But the authors conclude that the benefits from taping do not seem to be from correcting the alignment of the patella. Reference: Antonio Gigante, MD, et al. The Ef...
Normally neither glucose nor galactose are found in the urine. Therefore, a Clinitest tablet would not turn the urine blue.
What abnormal results mean
If a reducing agent is present, then the Clinitest tablet will turn orange then brown or greenish brown. The color it changes depends on the percentage of reducing agent present. One urinary reducing substance that could be present is glucose (as seen in diabetes). A simple urine dipstick test that is specific for glucose can be performed.
If the dipstick test is positive, then you have a high level of glucose in the blood, and the glucose is spilling over into the urine. Further testing will be done to confirm or rule out diabetes.
If the Clinitest tablet turns colors as described above and the dipstick indicates that no glucose is present, then you have a high level of another reducing substance, such as galactose, in the blood, which is spilli...
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