Frequent urination is best described as having to urinate so often that your activities of daily life and sleep are adversely affected. This problem is not an illness itself but rather a symptom of a wide variety of conditions, some from diseases, and others from external factors. The urinary tract--the kidneys, bladder and drainage system--can be afflicted by infections at any site, which causea frequent urination as the urinary organs react to the infection. Bladder infections and those of the prostate are the most common urinary tract infections causing frequent urination, but infections of the kidneys may also result in this symptom. Treatment of the infections with appropriate antibiotics will usually cure the infection and stop the frequent voiding. Obstruction of the outflow of urine from the bladder is another cause of frequent urination. An enlarged prostate in men and scars in the urine tube draining the bladder impede the bladder’s ability...
Taping the knee has become a standard method of treating pain caused by a poorly aligned kneecap ( patella ). The idea is that the tape helps hold the kneecap in better alignment. But does the tape actually improve the position of the kneecap? Past research is unclear. This study involved 16 young women with alignment problems of their patella. Researchers took pictures of the bones of the subjects' knees using computed tomography (CT). The CT scans were used to see the position of the knee caps before and after taping the knee, and with or without having the subject tighten the quadriceps muscle. Only four knees showed even a slight improvement in patellar alignment with taping. In the rest of the knees, taping made no difference in alignment at all. Patellar taping may indeed help ease pain or provide support for the knee cap. But the authors conclude that the benefits from taping do not seem to be from correcting the alignment of the patella. Reference: Antonio Gigante, MD, et al. The Ef...
Urine volume; 24-hour urine collection
The normal range is 800 to 2000 milliliters per day (with a normal fluid intake of about 2 liters per day).
Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.
What abnormal results mean
Disorders that cause reduced urine volume include dehydration, inadequate fluid intake, or renal insufficiency or failure.
Some of the conditions that cause increased urine volume include:
Diabetes insipidus - renal
Diabetes insipidus - central
High fluid intake
Some forms of kidney failure
Use of diuretic medications
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