One of the things that I seemed to have inherited from my mom was a tendency to have bad foot and leg cramps in the middle of the night. For several years, I found myself regularly waking up with my foot and leg muscles clenched, making it impossible to find any comfort. If I was lucky, I would wake up soon enough to feel the beginning of the cramp start in my toes, thus enabling me to work on it before it became a full-fledged rock-solid, muscle-burning cramp that took over the whole extremity. However, in the past few years, my night leg cramps have seemed to come around less often and they’re less severe. So what are these muscle cramps? How can you limit them? And what do you do if you have a leg cramp? “A muscle cramp is a sudden, uncontrolled contraction of a muscle,” wrote Dr. Jonathan Cluett on About.com. “Leg cramps occur when the muscle suddenly and forcefully contra...
<p><strong>What Is Diabetes?</strong></p>
<p>Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder with abnormally high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) as its most prominent feature. During intestinal digestion, carbohydrates and proteins are broken down into simple sugars and amino acids, respectively. The liver converts all of the sugars and some of the amino acids into glucose, a simple sugar that is used for energy by every cell in the body.</p>
<p>Glucose passes from the bloodstream into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas (a pear-shaped organ located just below the stomach). By attaching to receptor sites on the surface membrane of a cell, insulin promotes the movement of glucose-transport proteins from the interior of the cell to its surface, where they bind with glucose and carry it into the cell. In diabetes mellitus, several problems may interfere with this process: pancreatic insulin production may be p...
Noninsulin-dependent diabetes; Diabetes - type 2; Adult-onset diabetes
Often, people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at first. They may not have symptoms for many years.
The early symptoms of diabetes may include:
Bladder, kidney, skin, or other infections that are more frequent or heal slowly
The first symptom may also be:
Pain or numbness in the feet or hands
Signs and tests
Your health care provider may suspect that you have diabetes if your blood sugar level is higher than 200 mg/dL. To confirm the diagnosis, one or more of the following tests must be done.
Diabetes blood tests:
Fasting blood glucose level
-- diabetes is diagnosed if it is higher than 126 mg/dL two times
Hemoglobin A1c test
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