Good nutrition and regular exercise can help prevent or manage medical complications of diabetes (such as heart disease and stroke), and help patients live longer and healthier lives.
There is no such thing as a single diabetes diet. Patients should meet with a professional dietitian to plan an individualized diet within the general guidelines that takes into consideration their own health needs.
Healthy eating habits along with good control of blood glucose are the basic goals, and several good dietary methods are available to meet them. General dietary guidelines for diabetes recommend:
- Carbohydrates should provide 45 - 65% of total daily calories. The type and amount of carbohydrate are both important. Best choices are vegetables, fruits, beans, and whole grains. These foods are also high in fiber. Patients at high risk for diabetes should try to get at least 14 grams of fiber in their diet each day. Patients with diabetes should monitor their carbohydrate intake either through carbohydrate counting or meal planning exchange lists.
- Fats should provide 25 - 35% of daily calories. Monounsaturated (olive, peanut, and canola oils; avocados; nuts) and omega-3 polyunsaturated (fish, flaxseed oil, and walnuts) fats are the best types. Limit saturated fat (red meat, butter) to less than 7% of daily calories. Choose nonfat or low-fat dairy instead of whole milk products. Limit trans-fats (hydrogenated fat found in snack foods, fried foods, commercially baked goods) to less than 1% of total calories.
- Protein should provide 12 - 20% of daily calories, although this may vary depending on a patient’s individual health requirements. Patients with kidney disease should limit protein intake to less than 10% of calories. Fish, soy, and poultry are better protein choices than red meat.
[For more information, see In-Depth Report #42: Diabetes diet.]
Review Date: 04/01/2010
Reviewed By: Harvey Simon, MD, Editor-in-Chief, Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.