Insulin-dependent diabetes; Juvenile onset diabetes; Diabetes - type 1
The immediate goals of treatment are to treat
The long-term goals of treatment are to:
- Reduce symptoms
- Prevent diabetes-related complications such as blindness, kidney failure, nerve damage, amputation of limbs, and heart disease
You are the most important person in managing your diabetes. You should know the basic steps to diabetes management:
- How to recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
- How to recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia)
- Diabetes meal planning
- How to give insulin
- How to monitor blood glucose and
- How to adjust insulin and food intake during exercise
- How to handle sick days
- Where to buy diabetes supplies and how to store them
Insulin lowers blood sugar by allowing it to leave the bloodstream and enter cells. Everyone needs insulin. People with type 1 diabetes can't make their own insulin. They must take insulin every day.
Insulin is usually injected under the skin. In some cases, a pump delivers the insulin continuously. Insulin does not come in pill form.
Insulin preparations differ in how fast they start to work and how long they last. The health care professional will review your blood glucose levels to determine the appropriate type of insulin you should use. More than one type of insulin may be mixed together in an injection to achieve the best blood glucose control.
The injections are needed, in general, from one to four times a day. People are taught how to give insulin injections by their health care provider or a diabetes nurse educator. At first, a child's injections may be given by a parent or other adult. By age 14, most children can be expected (but should not be required) to give their own injections.
People with diabetes need to know how to adjust the amount of insulin they are taking in the following situations:
Review Date: 05/10/2010
Reviewed By: Ari S. Eckman, MD, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.