Fanconi syndrome is a disorder of the kidney tubes in which certain substances normally absorbed into the bloodstream by the kidneys are released into the urine instead.
De Toni-Fanconi syndrome
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Fanconi syndrome can be caused by faulty genes, or it may result later in life due to kidney damage. Sometimes the cause of Fanconi syndrome is unknown.
Common causes of Fanconi syndrome in children are genetic defects that affect the body's ability to break down certain compounds such as:
- Cystine (cystinosis)
- Fructose (
- Galactose (
- Glycogen (glycogen storage disease)
Cystinosis is the most common cause of Fanconi syndrome in children.
Other causes in children include:
- Exposure to heavy metals such as lead, mercury, or cadmium
- Lowe's disease, a rare genetic disorder of the eyes, brain, and kidneys
In adults, Fanconi syndrome can be caused by various things that damage the kidneys, including:
- Certain medications, including azathioprine, cidofovir, gentamicin, and tetracycline
- Kidney transplant
- Light chain deposition disease
Multiple myeloma Primary amyloidosis
Review Date: 03/09/2010
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; Herbert Y. Lin, MD, PHD, Nephrologist, Massachusetts General Hospital; Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.