Secondary parkinsonism is similar to
Parkinsonism - secondary
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Parkinson's disease is one of the most common nervous system (neurologic) disorders of the elderly. "Parkinsonism" refers to any condition that causes Parkinson's-type abnormal movements. These movements are caused by changes in or destruction of the nerve cells (neurons) that produce the chemical dopamine in a certain area of the brain.
Secondary parkinsonism may be caused by disorders such as:
Encephalitis Meningitis Stroke
Other disorders can also damage the dopamine neurons and produce this condition, including:
- Corticobasal degeneration
- Diffuse Lewy body disease
Multiple system atrophy Progressive supranuclear palsy
Another common cause of secondary parkinsonism is medication, such as:
- Antipsychotics (haloperidol)
- Phenothiazine medications
If they damage the area of the brain that contains the dopamine neurons, the following may cause secondary parkinsonism:
- Brain damage caused by
anesthesiadrugs (such as during surgery) Carbon monoxide poisoning
- Exposure to
- Overdoses of narcotics
There have been cases of secondary parkinsonism among intravenous drug users who injected a substance called MPTP, which can be produced when making a form of heroin. These cases are rare and have mostly affected long-term drug users.
Secondary parkinsonism caused by antipsychotics or other medications is usually reversible if identified soon enough. However, it may not be reversible if it is caused by:
- Drug-related brain damage
Review Date: 10/04/2010
Reviewed By: Daniel Kantor, MD, Medical Director of Neurologique, Ponte Vedra, FL and President of the Florida Society of Neurology (FSN). Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.