Pelvic inflammatory disease is a general term for infection of the uterus lining, fallopian tubes, or ovaries.
PID; Oophoritis; Salpingitis; Salpingo-oophoritis; Salpingo-peritonitis
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Most cases of pelvic inflammatory disease are caused by bacteria that move from the vagina or cervix into the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, or pelvis.
The most common cause of PID is sexual contact without using a condom or other protection. This is called a sexually transmitted disease (STD).
However, bacteria may also enter the body during some surgical or office procedures, such as:
- Insertion of an
intrauterinedevice (IUD) Miscarriage
- Therapeutic or elective abortion
In the United States, nearly 1 million women develop PID each year. About 1 in 8 sexually active adolescent girls will develop PID before age 20.
Risk factors include:
- Male sexual partner with gonorrhea or chlamydia
- Multiple sexual partners
- Past history of any sexually transmitted disease
- Past history of PID
- Recent insertion of an IUD
- Sexual activity during adolescence
Review Date: 09/02/2009
Reviewed By: Susan Storck, MD, FACOG, Chief, Eastside Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Redmond, Washington; Clinical Teaching Facility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.