Ventriculoperitoneal shunting is surgery to relieve increased pressure inside the skull due to excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the brain (
This article primarily discusses shunt placement in children.
Shunt - ventriculoperitoneal; VP shunt; Shunt revision
This procedure is done in the operating room under general anesthesia. It takes about 1 1/2 hours.
The child's hair behind the ear is shaved off. A surgical cut in the shape of a horseshoe (U-shape) is made behind the ear. Another small surgical cut is made in the child's belly.
A small hole is drilled in the skull. A small thin tube called a catheter is passed into a ventricle of the brain.
Another catheter is placed under the skin behind the ear and moved down the neck and chest, and usually into the abdominal (peritoneal) cavity. Sometimes, it goes to the chest area. The doctor may make a small cut in the neck to help position the catheter.
A valve (fluid pump) is placed underneath the skin behind the ear. The valve is attached to both catheters. When extra pressure builds up around the brain, the valve opens, and excess fluid drains out of it into the belly or chest area. This helps decrease intracranial pressure.
The valves in newer shunts can be programmed to drain more or less fluid from the brain.
Why the Procedure Is Performed
Review Date: 11/22/2010
Reviewed By: Kevin Sheth, MD, Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.