Effect of Chronic Stress on Memory. If stress becomes chronic, sufferers often lose concentration at work and home, and they may become inefficient and accident-prone. In children, the physiologic responses to chronic stress can interfere with learning. Studies have connected long-term exposure to excess amounts of the stress hormone, cortisol to a shrinking of the hippocampus, the brain's memory center. It is not yet known whether this shrinking is reversible.
Skin Disorders. Stress may worsen numerous skin conditions, including hives, psoriasis, acne, and rosacea, and it is one of the most common causes of eczema. Unexplained itching may also be caused by stress. Evidence suggests that experiencing the stress of a traumatic event (parental divorce or separation, or a severe disease in a family member) before age 2 increases the risk of developing eczema.
Unexplained Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata). Alopecia areata is hair loss that occurs in localized (individual) patches. The cause is unknown, but stress is suspected as a player in this condition. For example, hair loss often occurs during periods of intense stress, such as when people are in mourning.
Teeth and Gums. Stress has now been implicated in increasing the risk for periodontal disease, which can cause tooth loss and has been linked to heart disease.
People who are under chronic stress often turn to alcohol or tobacco for relief. Stress compounds the damage these self-destructive habits cause under ordinary circumstances. Many people also resort to unhealthy eating habits, smoking, or passive activities, such as watching television when they are stressed.
Alcohol affects receptors in the brain that reduce stress. Lack of nicotine increases stress in smokers, which creates a cycle of dependency on smoking.
The cycle is self-perpetuating: a sedentary routine, an unhealthy diet, alcohol abuse, and smoking all promote heart disease. They also interfere with sleep patterns, and lead to increased rather than reduced tension levels. Drinking four or five cups of coffee, for example, can cause changes in blood pressure and stress hormone levels similar to those produced by chronic stress. Animal fats, simple sugars, and salt are known contributors to health problems.
Review Date: 10/14/2010
Reviewed By: Reviewed by: Harvey Simon, MD, Editor-in-Chief, Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.