Saturday, December 20, 2014

Hypothyroidism - Diagnosis

Symptoms


Early Symptoms. Early symptoms of hypothyroidism are subtle and, in older people, can be easily mistaken for symptoms of stress or aging. They include:

  • Chronic fatigue
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Sensitivity to cold
  • Headache
  • Muscle and joint aches
  • Weight gain, despite diminished appetite
  • Constipation
  • Dry skin
  • Menstrual irregularities (either heavier-than-normal or lighter-than-normal bleeding)
  • Milky discharge from the breasts (galactorrhea)

Later Symptoms. As free thyroxine levels fall over the following months, other symptoms may develop:

  • Impaired mental activity, including problems with concentration and memory, particularly in the elderly.
  • Depression.
  • Muscle weakness, numbness, pain, and cramps. These symptoms can cause an unsteady gait. Muscle cramps are common, and carpal tunnel syndrome or symptoms similar to arthritis sometimes develop. In some cases, the arms and legs may feel numb.
  • Numbness in the fingers.
  • Hearing loss.
  • Husky voice.
  • Continuing weight gain and possible obesity, in spite of low appetite.
  • Skin and hair changes. Skin becomes pale, rough, and dry. Patients may sweat less. Hair coarsens and even falls out. Nails become brittle.
  • Snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (a condition in which in the soft palate in the throat collapses at intervals during sleep, thereby blocking the passage of air).

Symptoms in Infants and Children

In the U.S., nearly all babies are screened for hypothyroidism in order to prevent cognitive developmental problems that can occur if treatment is delayed. Symptoms of hypothyroidism in children vary depending on when the problem first develops.

  • Most children who are born with a defect that causes congenital hypothyroidism have no obvious symptoms. Symptoms that do appear in newborns may include jaundice (yellowish skin), noisy breathing, and an enlarged tongue.
  • Early symptoms of undetected and untreated hypothyroidism in infants include feeding problems, failure to thrive, constipation, hoarseness, and sleepiness.
  • Later on, symptoms in untreated children include protruding abdomens; rough, dry skin; and delayed teething. Rarely, in advanced cases, yellow raised bumps (called xanthomas) may appear under the skin, the result of cholesterol build-up.
  • If they do not receive proper treatment in time, children with hypothyroidism may be extremely short for their age, have a puffy, bloated appearance, and have below-normal intelligence. Any child whose growth is abnormally slow should be examined for hypothyroidism.


Review Date: 05/03/2011
Reviewed By: Harvey Simon, MD, Editor-in-Chief, Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org)