In most cases of colon or rectal cancers, the cause or causes are unknown. Defects in genes that normally protect against cancer play the major role in causing polyp cells to change and become cancerous. Some of these cases are caused by inherited genetic defects, and such patients usually have family histories of colorectal cancer. Most of the genetic mutations involved in colon cancers, however, appear to arise spontaneously (no strong family history) rather than being inherited. In such cases, environmental or other factors may trigger genetic changes in the intestine that lead to cancer.
Review Date: 10/21/2010
Reviewed By: Harvey Simon, MD, Editor-in-Chief, Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.