Two of the most common kidney disorders due to infections are glomerulonephritis and bacterial pyelo-nephritis (pyelos means pelvis of the kidney + nephro + itis)
Glomerulonephritis is diagnosed through tests of kidney function and an assessment as to whether protein is being passed in the urine.
Pyelonephritis is diagnosed by means of assessment of the clinical history (fever, chills, back pain) and clinical exam (tenderness over the involved kidney). Definitive evidence is obtained by means of culturing the offending organism from the urine.
For glomerulonephritis, treatment consists of antibiotics for any bacterial infection and rest. The treatment may continue for one to two weeks after tests of blood, blood pressure, and the urine indicates that the kidneys are back to normal. Sodium and protein may be restricted.
For pyelonephritis, the most important measures are to eliminate the bacteria with antibiotics given orally or intravenously and to correct any obstruction. When obstruction cannot be eliminated and recurrent infections are common, then long-term antibiotic therapy may be required.